Andrew Carnegie emigrated from Dunfermline to Pennsylvania with his family at the age of 12.
He established iron and steel companies which saw him become the richest man in America. He believed in the importance of education and established 3000 libraries in the USA, and in Britain.
He also set up institutes in the USA to conduct scientific research. By the time of his death in 1919, he had given away $350 million of his fortune.
George Smith emigrated from Aberdeen to Chicago in the 1830s. He developed banking institutions in Wisconsin and Illinois. In the 1840s and 1850s he was the most successful banker in the Chicago area.
Peter Donahue emigrated to California in 1849. He established iron and gas works near San Francisco.
In 1860 he created the San Francisco-San Jose Railroad and laid the foundations for the Northwestern Pacific Railroad in the 1870s.
Robert Dollar emigrated from Falkirk to Canada in 1858. By 1888, he had moved to California and was active in the timber business.
In the 1890s he became involved in the shipping industry and in the early 20th century he combined his interests and made his fortune, transporting lumber to the Far East.