The source of the River Conwy is high in the Snowdonian Mountains. The river has eroded away the landscape by hydraulic action, abrasion and attrition. Waterfalls are formed where hard rock lies over a softer rock. Gorges are found where waterfalls retreat upstream. Meanders and floodplains are found in the lower course of the river. Estuaries are found at the mouth of the river. The river transports material when it has enough energy. When the river loses energy, it deposits the material it has been carrying. Ordnance Survey mapping © Crown Copyright.

Use this clip to establish some of the key terms associated with the development of river features. Students could be given a number of key terms - hydraulic action/abrasion/plunge pool/gorge etc - and as they watch the clip, they should try to define what these words mean. Following the clip, they could look to connect these different words together and explain how features are formed.