In 630 the Prophet Muhammad entered Mecca with a band of his followers. He rode into the city, circling the Kaaba seven times and touching the Black Stone set into the corner. On entering the Kaaba, he threw out and destroyed all the idols that were kept there. From this time on, Mecca became the holy city dedicated to Allah. Just as Muhammad did, pilgrims on Hajj start from the Black Stone and walk seven times around the Kaaba, this is called Tawaf. Pilgrims also run between the mountains of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, following the events in the life of Hagar and Ismail.
Students could create a colour coded concept map of the rituals that are performed on day one of the Hajj. They can focus on what Muslims do, such as their behaviour in general as well as specific examples of the actions they perform, what they wear (looking at the clothing and the symbolism of purity and equality), what they say and how they demonstrate membership of community. Subsequent points can be added to the concept map for each day of the Hajj and the five pillars of Islam as a whole. These can be used later for exam revision.