The Roman army was organised with specific tactics in place for different battle situations. When the Caledonians charged, the Romans used their shields to form a solid wall to resist them. When attacked with spears, the Romans held their shields around them and over their heads to form an armoured 'tortoise'. While few Caledonians had armour, all the Roman soldiers had overlapping metal armour and they were armed with more swords and spears.
Students could be shown examples of different designs of Roman weapons, armour and shields. Students could then equip their own Roman soldier by designing his weapons and armour, based on their existing knowledge such as overlapping metal plates for armour.