The source of the River Conwy is high in the Snowdonian Mountains. The river has eroded away the landscape by hydraulic action, abrasion and attrition. Waterfalls are formed where hard rock lies over a softer rock. Gorges are found where waterfalls retreat upstream. Meanders and floodplains are found in the lower course of the river. Estuaries are found at the mouth of the river. The river transports material when it has enough energy. When the river loses energy, it deposits the material it has been carrying. Ordnance Survey mapping © Crown Copyright.

Conduct a visit to a local river, or study one on a map, and look for features like meanders and waterfalls. If visiting, students could measure the flow rate at different parts of the river to help explain the features formed and rates of erosion and deposition. Students could produce annotated diagrams to explain how some of these features are formed.