The Romans left Caledonia and moved further south in Britannia to deal with attacks from the Scots tribe from Ireland and the Anglo-Saxons from northern Europe. Soldiers were also needed to deal with conflicts in other parts of the Roman Empire. The Romans faced ongoing difficulties from increasingly organised Caledonian tribes. The Romans left behind a wealthier land with increased cooperation between the tribes living there.

First broadcast:
14 November 2008

The students could debate whether it was a good thing that the Romans invaded Caledonia, given that they left behind a wealthier land with more cooperation between the tribes. Were there benefits to the Romans once they had withdrawn?