Pillar of Ashoka

Contributed by British Museum

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This fragment comes from one of the pillars erected throughout India by the Emperor Ashoka around 240 BC. The type of writing used for the inscription is known as 'Brahmi' and forms the basis for all later Indian, Tibetan and South-East Asian writing. This inscription outlines Ashoka's personal philosophy ? a system similar to Buddhism ? on how people should live their lives. In this pillar, Ashoka speaks of how the greatest conquest is over one's personal morals ? not over other people or lands.

Who was Ashoka?

Ashoka was the most famous king of the Mauryan Empire ? one of the largest empires in the history of South Asia. At their height, the Mauryans controlled most of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. As a young man Ashoka was renowned for his hedonism and cruelty. However, later in life he felt intense remorse triggered by a massacre that occurred during one of his conquests. This inspired him to renounce violence and follow dharma ? a self-defined path of righteousness that guided him through life.

A carving of four lions that once topped one of Ashoka's pillars at Sarnath is now the national emblem of India

A man of peace

It is always said that Ashoka, after winning a great battle, turned into a man of peace. Bhutan does not have great battles but some few years ago the fourth king personally led the very small Bhutanese army down to the south east to expel some thousands of Indian separatist rebels who were fleeing into Bhutan after attacking the Indian army in Assam.

Before he sent he made a speech to the army in which he said we must try not to kill people. It was a successful operation, in just three days all these rebels were flushed out and when the king returned to the capital there was some suggestion that there should be a triumphal entry and all the flags were put up and the invitation cards sent out. But no, that was not his style. His view was this; some people had been killed, there is nothing to celebrate. And so he returned quietly with no celebrations, no triumphalism – something I feel that Ashoka would have felt very at home with.

Michael Rutland, British Consul in Bhutan

A griefless emperor

Ashoka… Shok is grief in Sanskrit. Ashoka is griefless, so there is a kind of commitment to happiness. We don’t know if he was born with that name or not; he may have been called just that – my name, Amartya, means immortal – I know that’s not true. In his case, it might have been more true!

But certainly he is associated with good governance. He is associated with the unity of India as one of the first emperors ruling all over the land – the entire land – he is associated with Indian secularism because of his religious neutrality. He became quite famously converted from Hinduism to the new religion of Buddhism, but his argument was that all the religions would have equal status and recognition and get attention from the others. So secularism in the Indian form, not no religion in government matters, but not favouritism of any religion over any other. That interpretation of secularism, which Akbar pursues, actually originates in fact with Ashoka.

Then there is the issue of democracy, and democracy as governed by discussion, that’s very big in Ashoka, namely that you have to discuss and you have to arrive at a conclusion and that’s the best way to govern.

Amartya Sen, University Professor and Professor of Economics and Philosophy at Harvard University

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  • 1. At 23:52 on 18 May 2010, Tony wrote:

    The decision of where to place a pillar would need to take in all sorts of considerations. One of them would be if there were any electromagnetic planetary power lines or ley lines running across that spot. (If you wanted to begin looking at ley lines you could start with [Unsuitable/Broken URL removed by Moderator] The reason for locating a pillar on a ley line is so that it could tap into that natural power and enhance its function as a ?public address system?.
    It is interesting that like England, India has the lion as its emblem. A lot of cultures have the Bull, Lion Eagle or Snake as their emblem I have gone into the possible reason for this in my blog [Unsuitable/Broken URL removed by Moderator]10;

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  • 2. At 14:02 on 7 July 2010, ghetufool wrote:

    Dear BBC,
    You have given me immeasurable pleasure throughout my life, in my highs and downs, through your programmes. I have been listening to the BBC since my childhood. Earlier through short-wave, now through Internet. It?s a childhood habit that has been passed on to me by my father; I am thirty now, an Indian.
    Yet, I must say, this series has been the most wonderful that I have ever had the pleasure to listen and I am deeply thankful to you and the British Museum, particularly tireless Mr. Neil MacGregor, for expanding my horizon. I love his comnforting voice. I would love to visit London someday to see these objects myself.
    I was most thrilled to hear this episode on Ashoka the Great. It reminded me of how we Indians should live. Not that I don?t know about Ashoka or Buddha, but you get reminded of them suddenly, in this case through your programme. At least for a month or two, I will be sober J before forgetting all the nobilities and their teachings in my daily struggle to life here in Mumbai.
    I don?t get to hear the episodes when they are on air but I make sure I download the episodes.
    Sadly, not many people back here in India are aware of this excellent programme. I am doing my bit to let my friends know about this excellent initiative. Apart from directing them to your website, I hope to collect all the 100 episodes and make a disc to present to my near and dear ones, particularly to kids. Kids who understand English and are eager to know about the world but do not have good educational stuff available with them. Also, I hope, by listening to these episodes, they will realize the importance of visualizing and creating their own world that is so restricted when they are watching a television programme.
    I hope, making discs out of these programmes and distributing them for private use, and not for commercial, is not a copyright infringement. Please let me know if it is so. I would deter doing so.
    Best regards.

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Uttar Pradesh, India


About 238 BC


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