Kurwanya amakuru mpimbano

Uhereye ku icengezamatwara ukageza ku bihuha, “amakuru mpimbano” cyangwa “fake news” nkuko bivugwa mu Cyongereza, yabaye ijambo rikomatanya urusobe rw’amakuru atari ukuri cyangwa agamije kuyobya rubanda, akenshi bigakorwa hagamijwe indonke muri politiki cyangwa mu bucuruzi.

Gukwirakwiza icengezamatwara gukorwa na za leta mu rwego rwo kwibasira abo bahanganye, si ikintu gishya. Ni kimenyimenyi ishami rya BBC ryitwa Monitoring, ryatangiye ibikorwa byo gutahura ukugoreka ibimenyetso by’inkuru mu bitangazamakuru guhera mu myaka ya 1930. Icyahindutse,  ni uburyo bw’ingano n’inyungu zitandukanye bituma abantu bakwirakwiza amakuru atari ukuri mu buryo bwihuse kandi akagera henshi mu mahanga ya kure hakoreshejwe imbuga nkoranyambaga.

Imvugo “amakuru mpimbano” ntivugwaho rumwe, kubera ko yakoreshejwe n’abanyapolitiki bamwe na bamwe bagamije kunenga itangazamakuru ryatangaje inkuru z’ukuri ariko batemeranya nazo. Abarimu ba za kaminuza bakora ubushakashatsi kuri iyi ngingo, bo bakora ubukangurambaga bw’uko ahubwo mu kigwi cy’iyo mvugo, hakoreshwa imvugo “akajagari mu makuru” hashaka kuvugwa ikibazo cy’iyobya mu makuru rikorwa muri iki gihe cy’iterambere ry’imbuga za interineti ku isi. Ibi bikubiyemo ibibazo byinshi, bitari gusa iyobya mu makuru rikorwa n’abanyapolitiki bagamije icengezamatwara, ahubwo harimo n’inkuru zivuga ku buzima ariko zitari ukuri, ibihuha bivuga ku mpfu z’ibyamamare ndetse n’ibirego mpimbano bishinja ibikorwa by’urugomo bishobora gutuma haduka ubushyamirane bw’amoko ndetse bugashobora no kugeza ku bikorwa by’urugomo mu miryango y’abantu itandukanye.

Amakuru atari ukuri yavugaga ko Papa yashyigikiye kandidatire ya Donald Trump yarakwiragiye cyane ku mbuga nkoranyambaga mbere y’amatora ya perezida muri Amerika mu mwaka wa 2016. 

Uko twahitamo kucyita kose, ikibazo cy’iyobya mu makuru cyangwa igoreka ry’amakuru kiri kugenda gifata indi ntera mu kuba kibi kurushaho. Zitabangamiwe no kuba atari ukuri, inkuru mpimbano akenshi zikora ku mbamutima zacu, yemwe zigakwiragira cyane kurusha n’amakuru y’impamo. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Kaminuza ya MIT [yo muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika], bwagaragaje ko inkuru zitari ukuri zikwirakwira ku rubuga nkoranyambaga rwa Twitter byihuse cyane kandi zikagera kure kurusha ukuri mu byiciro byose by’amakuru. Abakoze ubu bushakashatsi banatahuye ko ari abantu, atari gusa ibyuma bikoreshwa n’imashini, basangiza abandi ubutumwa bwo kuri Twitter bukubiyemo inkuru zitari ukuri bagakwirakwiza inkuru zitari ukuri. Ariko uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga rishingiye ku guha ibyuma birimo za mudasobwa ubwenge bujya kuba nk’ubw’umuntu, nabwo rwose bubigiramo uruhare, kandi iterambere riri gukataza muri uru rwego ryatumye bishoboka gukora videwo n’amajwi biyunguruye neza – bivuze ko ubu bishoboka gukora videwo mpimbano z’abantu bazwi cyane na rubanda ndetse n’iz’ibyamamare zikabagaragaza bavuga banakora ibintu ubusanzwe batagakoze mu buzima bwabo bw’ukuri. Izi videwo zizwi nka “deepfakes” mu rurimi rw’Icyongereza kandi kuba ikoranabuhanga ryifashishwa muri izi videwo ryifitemo ubushobozi bwo kuyobya itangazamakuru ntawabicira inyeri. Ntabwo izi videwo ari igikoresho gusa cyo gukora inkuru zitari ukuri, ahubwo zishobora no gutuma abantu batera icyizere bagirira amakuru ashingiye ku kuri ubundi yari asanzwe adashidikanywaho. Icyizere abantu bafitiye uburyo bwa BBC bwo kwemeza ko amakuru ari ukuri buzarushaho kuba ingenzi, ndetse bunagorane kuburinda.

None abanyamakuru bakwiye kubyifatamo bate? Hari ibice bine aho abanyamakuru bashobora gukora ikintu cy’ingirakamaro: kugenzura, kunyomoza ku karubanda inkuru zitari ukuri zikagaragazwa impamvu zitari ukuri, gukorera mu mucyo no kurushaho gusobanurira rubanda uko itangazamakuru rikora.

Kugenzura

Kugira ngo itangazamakuru ryizewe rikomeze kugirirwa icyizere, abanyamakuru bacyeneye gufata ingamba zo gutuma amakuru mpimbano atabameneramo. Abanyamakuru bagomba kugenzura amakuru yose babonye ku mbuga za interineti batekereza cyane kuba bakoresha mu nkuru cyangwa bashingiraho inkuru. Ishami [rya BBC] ryita ku makuru ashingiye ku bakoresha imbuga za interineti rya UGC hub, rikoresha uburyo butandukanye bwo gutahura amakuru yiyitirira ko ari ukuri kandi atari ukuri, cyangwa mu kwemeza ko ifoto runaka ari iy’ukuri cyangwa ari umwimereri. Gushobora kubona aho inkuru yakomotse ku ikubitiro, yaba videwo cyangwa ifoto, no kuvugana n’abo byakomotseho cyangwa umuntu wayishyize ku mbuga za interineti, ni intambwe ya mbere y’ingenzi. Usibye kugenzura inkomoko y’inkuru, hari uburyo butandukanye buriho bwo kwifashisha mu kugenzura ireme n’ukuri kw’inkuru. Gufata iyo foto ukayishakisha [muri Google] mu buryo buzwi nka “Reverse image search” mu Cyongereza n’uburyo bwo kumenya igice cy’isi yafatiwemo, ndetse n’uburyo bwa kera bw’itangazamakuru riperereza cyangwa ricukumbuye, bwose buracyenewe. Amakuru ndangafoto cyangwa ndangavidewo nayo ashobora gutanga ibisobanuro byaho iyo foto cyangwa videwo yakorewe, nubwo bwose ukwiye kubyitondera kuko ayo makuru ashobora guhindurwa by’uburiganya. Kongera kugenzura amafoto uyahuza n’imfuruka y’icyerekezo cy’izuba cyangwa uko ikirere cyari cyifashe ku munsi yafotoreweho bishobora gufasha mu kumenya niba ari umwimereri. 

Iyi foto yatangajwe n’ibitangazamakuru bimwe mu kwerekana umwuzure ku kibuga cy’indege cya Houston [muri Amerika] mu mwaka wa 2017, mu gihe mu by’ukuri yari ifoto yahinduwe hifashishijwe mudasobwa mu buryo buzwi nka “photoshop” mu Cyongereza – ifoto yagaragazaga ikibuga cy’indege cy’i New York mu mwaka wa 2013.

Uburyo buhuriweho n’imbaga y’abantu bwo kugenzura [ukuri kw’amakuru] buri gutera imbere, burimo nk’imbuga nka Bellingcat na #DigitalSherlocks, bituma igenzura no kumenya icyerecyezo cy’isi by’inkuru byarahindutse umurimo ukorwa n’itsinda ry’abantu. Kurushaho gukorana n’abandi banyamakuru n’abakorerabushake hagamijwe kugenzura ukuri kw’amakuru, ndetse no gusangiza rubanda uburyo tuyagenzuramo bishobora kuba ingirakamaro mu kurwanya igoreka ry’amakuru rikozwe ku rwego rugari.

Urugero rw’ubu bufatanye twatanga, ni inkuru-perereza y’ishami rya BBC rizwi nka Africa Eye (cyangwa ijisho ry’Afurika) ku bacyekwaho kwica abaturage bo mu cyaro cyo mu gihugu cya Cameroun bikozwe n’igisirikare cy’iki gihugu. Aho ubwo bwicanyi bwakorewe hamenyekanye hagendewe ku iperereza kuri videwo yari yatangajwe ku mbuga za interineti. Uruhererekane rw’imisozi rugaragara muri iyo videwo rwahujwe neza n’imisozi yo mu majyaruguru ya Cameroun hifashishijwe uburyo bw’amakarita yo kuri interineti buzwi nka Google Earth. Hanyuma haterwa izindi ntambwe mu kumenya ubwoko bw’intwaro [imbunda zakoreshejwe], imyenda ya gisirikare n’abantu bagaragara muri iyo videwo, mu gihe amafoto y’icyogajuru yifashishijwe mu kumenya intera y’igihe  iyo videwo ishobora kuba yarafatiwe. Ibi byose byafashije mu guhinyuza imvugo ya leta ya Cameroun ko iyo videwo yari ku mbug za interineti yari “amakuru mpimbano.”

Kunyomoza inkuru mpimbano

Ikibazo kimwe abanyamakuru bakwiye kwitaho ni ugutangaza inkuru zitari zo. Kunyomoza ku mugaragaro inkuru mpimbano no kuzitangaza ko ari impimbano, byaba bituma zirushaho kwamamara?

Hari bamwe bashobora kuvuga ko BBC idakwiye kuvuga ku nkuru mpimbano. Ariko niba ibyavuzwe muri iyo nkuru mpimbano bikomeje gukwiragira ku mbuga za interineti, cyangwa kugoreka ukuri mu buryo buhungabanya impaka ziri kugibwa muri politiki, hari ingamba ishingiye ku gufasha rubanda igomba gufatwa hagamijwe kurwanya ikwirakwira ry’amakuru atari ukuri. Hakwiye gufatwa icyemezo kijyanye n’amakuru mu kugenzura niba ari ngombwa kunyomoza ku mugaragaro inkuru mpimbano runaka, cyangwa niba bicyenewe ko ibwirwa rubanda kuko ibafitiye akamaro, cyangwa niba hari ibimenyetso bihagije byo gufasha mu kunyomoza  iyo nkuru mpimbano.

Ishami rya BBC ryitwa Reality Check (cyangwa kugenzura ukuri kw’ibivugwa) ricukumbura ibivugwa bicyekwa kuba bitari ukuri ndetse rikanagenzura bimwe mu byibazwa n’abagenerwa amakuru cyangwa rubanda. Itsinda ry’abanyamakuru ba BBC Reality Check akenshi rigenzura ibivugwa n’abanyapolitiki n’ibyo bireguza, by’umwihariko mu bihe by’amatora. Ubushakashatsi bw’abagize iri tsinda bwibanda cyane cyane mu gukoresha imibare yo mu ibarurishamibare cyangwa ‘inama zigibwa n’impuguke’. Igice cy’isi cya BBC cyizwi nka World Service ndetse n’ikiganiro More or Less kinyura kuri Radio 4 ya BBC yumvikana mu Bwongereza, byatangaje bumwe mu buryo bw’ibanze bwo gutahura imibare y’ibarurishamibare itari ukuri. Mu nama z’ingenzi batanze harimo:

  • Kumva ibyo imbamutima zawe zikubwira
  • Kureba icyaba cyibyihishe inyuma
  • Kumva neza ikiri kuvugwa
  • Kumva urwego ibiri kuvugwa biri kuvugirwamo 
  • Kugira amatsiko

Cyo kimwe n’ibivugwa byose ku mbuga za interineti, ni ingenzi gushakisha aho ibivugwa byakomotse ku ikubitiro.

Hari n’abandi bantu bakora mu bikorwa byo kugenzura ukuri kw’ibivugwa. Aha twavuga nka Full Fact mu Bwongereza na Africa Check muri Afurika. Kandi nkuko bigenda mu igenzura ry’uko ifoto yakoreshejwe ari umwimereri cyangwa ari iy’ukuri, gutangaza ibyavuye mu kugenzura ukuri kw’ibivugwa ukabisangiza abandi banyamakuru, ni ingenzi mu guhangana n’iki kibazo.

Gukorera mu mucyo

Kuri ubu tugomba guhora dushishikajwe no kugirirwa icyizere na rubanda kandi tukamenya kugisigasira, ku isoko ry’amakuru kuri ubu ririmo abogambye menshi, aho abo duhanganye mu rwego rw’amakuru babangamira icyizere rubanda itugirira, ndetse aho amakuru mpimbano ajya ashyirwaho ikirango cya BBC akayitirirwa.

Ariko nanone twese tujya dukora amakosa, kandi mu gutanguranwa kuba aba mbere ku nkuru bishobora koroha guhita ufata imyanzuro ihutiyeho cyangwa ugasubiramo ibikubiye mu ibarurishamibare runaka utabanje kuyigenzurana ubushishozi buhagije. Gukorera mu mucyo ni ingenzi: bimenyeshe umuyobozi wawe w’amakuru (umwanditsi mukuru) niba ari ngombwa kandi uhite uhindura iyo nkuru ku mugaragaro bijyanye n’amakuru mashya ahari. Gukosora amakosa no kwisegura mu ruhame mu gihe duteshutse, bizatuma dukomeza kugirirwa icyizere nka BBC. Kuvuga mu mucyo abo twakomoyeho inkuru, ndetse n’ibimenyetso twifashishije ngo bishyigikire inkuru, nabyo ni ingenzi, kandi bizafasha abadukurikira kumva neza kurushaho aho dukura amakuru ndetse babishingireho bumva ko ari itangazamakuru ry’umwuga.

Gusobanukirwa n’itangazamakuru

Bumwe mu buryo bwiza cyane bwo guhagarika ikwirakwira ry’amakuru agoretse, ni uguhugura abadukurikira ku buryo bo ubwabo bashobora gushungura inkuru babona ku mbuga nkoranyambaga. BBC School Report [link: School Report http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolreport] ni ishami rya BBC rikorana n’urubyiruko mu Bwongereza rikaruha iby’ibanze rucyeneye mu gusobanukirwa neza itangazamakuru. Abanyamakuru ba BBC bakorera ubushake bagasura ibigo by’amashuri bakanatanga ibikorsho bimwe ba bimwe nk’umukino wa iReporter, ufasha abanyeshuri kumva uko umunymakuru wa BBC akora akazi ke. BBC School Report inatanga amasomo afasha abanyeshuri gusobanukirwa neza uburyo bwo gutahura inkuru y’ukuri n’itari ukuri. Kuri ubu iri shami rya BBC School Report rigiye gutangira kugeza ibiganiro byaryo ku isi, aho abanyamakuru b’ishami ry’isi rya BBC bari guhabwa amahugurwa ku gutanga ibiganiro bihugura rubanda ku itangazamakuru, ku ikubitiro bikazahera mu Buhinde no muri Kenya.

Kugira ubushishozi mu kugenzura ukuri kw’amakuru atangwa na rubanda ku mbuga za interineti, kandi hatangwa inama zigaragaza uburyo bwifashishijwe mu kugenzura ukuri kw’amakuru, bizafasha rubanda kumenya uko yitwara mu gihe hakomeje kubaho ibivugwa n’ibisubizwa ku bivugwa biteye urujijo ku mbuga za interineti. Gusobanura uburyo inkuru mpimbano yanyomojwe bishobora kongera ubumenyi ku ngaruka z’igoreka ry’amakuru, n’ingorane ziriho mu kugera ku kuri.

 

Ahifashishijwe mu makuru yo muri iyi nyandiko:

BBC Monitoring: https://monitoring.bbc.co.uk/

MIT research: http://news.mit.edu/2018/study-twitter-false-news-travels-faster-true-stories-0308

Africa Eye Cameroon: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-45681690  https://twitter.com/BBCAfrica/status/1044186344153583616

More or Less Postcard: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3csvq3v

BBC School report’s iReporter game:  https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-8760dd58-84f9-4c98-ade2-590562670096

First Draft News: https://firstdraftnews.org/ provide access to verification materials in English, Spanish and Portuguese with more languages to come.

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