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The Amazon rainforest is the largest in the world, covering approximately seven million kmē (40% of South America). Much of the global carbon cycle that is crucial to the world's ecology and climate goes through the Amazon, earning it the label "the lungs of the Earth".

The Amazon is a rich store of biodiversity, containing around a quarter of all terrestrial species. At 6,400km, the Amazon river is the second longest in the world, and accounts for one fifth of all fresh water drained into the world's oceans.

The Amazon basin is also home to more than 30 million people of nine nations; Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Two-thirds of the Amazonian population are Brazilian, and more than half live in urban centres.
 
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