In times of peace, science is co-operative. It relies on the free flow of information across international borders. But following the 11 September 2001 attacks on the United States, the scientific climate across the world has changed. Tighter border controls mean that scientists now find it much harder to study or work in the United States.
As a result of the attacks, American science is concentrating more on defensive technologies. There is less money available for fundamental, ‘blue skies’ research, which is often credited with developing innovative technologies.
In this four-part series, Richard Hollingham assesses how global science has been altered by the 9/11 attacks.
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