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Brown and Williamson are one of largest tobacco manufacturers in the USA. In 1994 they published a list of all the additives used in their cigarettes which includes information on the sources of the additives and their side-effects
 
 
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1. ACETANISOLE - FEMA GRASS                
found in beef, cranberry, guava, grape, mango, peppermint; used in frozen dairy products, hard candies.
2. ACETIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in banana, beer, beef, apple juice, apricot, blue cheese, blueberries; used in condiment relishes.
3. ACETOIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apples, butter, yogurt, asparagus, black currants, blackberry, wheat, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cantaloupe; used in baked goods.
4. ACETOPHENONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, cheese, apricot, banana, beef, cauliflower; used in chewing gum.
5. 6-ACETOXYDIHYDROTHEASPIRANE - FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, instant coffee/tea, snacks, soups, seasonings, meat products.
6. 2-ACETYL-3-ETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in pork; used in soups.
7. 2-ACETYL-5-METHYLFURAN - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, roasted filbert, tomato juice; used in soups, nut products, snack foods, gravies.
8. ACETYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, coffee, popcorn, sesame seed, almond, wheat bread, cocoa, peanut, pork, potato chips; used in frozen dairy products.
9. 2-ACETYLPYRIDINE - FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, coffee, roasted peanut, potato chips, tea, beer, wheat bread, hazelnut, lamb/mutton, potato; used in breakfast cereals, ice cream, candy.
10. 3-ACETYLPYRIDINE - FEMA GRAS
found in roasted filbert, cocoa; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, gelatin and puddings, baked goods.
11. 2-ACETYLTHIAZOLE - FEMA GRAS
found in bean, potatoes, artichoke, asparagus, beef, beer, brazil nuts, rice, boiled shrimp; used in snack foods.
12. ACONITIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in beet root, sugarcane; used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, chewing gum.
13. dl-ALANINE
natural constituent of protein in plants and animals; found in apple, beef, carob, pea, soybean, wine, zucchini.
14. ALFALFA EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in alfalfa; used in baked goods.
15. ALLSPICE EXTRACT, OLEORESIN, AND OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in soups, candies, chewing gum, meats.
16. ALLYL HEXANOATE - FEMA GRAS
found in baked potato; used in gelatin and puddings.
17. ALLYL IONONE; FEMA GRAS
used in ice cream, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, jellies.
18. ALMOND BITTER OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in almond, apricot, peach kernel; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
19. AMBERGRIS TINCTURE GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy.
20. AMMONIA
Occurs in human/animal breath due to protein metabolism; dissolved in water it is a naturally occurring substance that plays a vital role in protein metabolism in animals, including man.
21. AMMONIUM BICARBONATE GRAS
used in baked goods.
22. AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE GRAS
found in cured pork.
23. AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE DIBASIC GRAS
used in dough, ice cream, gelatin and puddings.
24. AMMONIUM SULFIDE - FEMA GRAS

used in baked goods, meat products, gravies, condiments.
25. AMYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS

found in apple, banana, cheese, chicken, coffee, potato, raspberry, strawberry, tomato; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
26. AMYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in bananas, beer, apple juice, apricots, strawberries, wine; used in syrup, candy, chewing gum.
27. AMYL FORMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, strawberry, brandy, honey, tomatoes, whiskey; used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy, chewing gum.
28. AMYL OCTANOATE; FEMA GRAS

found in strawberry, apple, cognac; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
29. alpha-AMYLCINNAMALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in black tea, olibanum; used in candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
30. AMYRIS OIL
; found in brandies, liqueurs, amryis balsamifera; used in brandies, liqueurs, oriental specialties.
31. trans-ANETHOLE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cheese, tea, apple, licorice; used in alcoholic beverages.
32. ANGELICA ROOT EXTRACT, OIL AND SEED OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, baked goods, chewing gum.
33. ANISE, ANISE STAR, EXTRACT AND OILS GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in star anise; used in ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy, chewing gum, meats, condiments.
34. ANISYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in currant; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
35. ANISYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in honey, tomato; used in gelatin and puddings.
36. ANISYL FORMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in vanilla; used in candy, baked goods.
37. ANISYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in honey; used in baked goods.
38. APPLE JUICE CONCENTRATE, EXTRACT, AND SKINS
common food item found in apple; used in juices, baked goods.
39. APRICOT EXTRACT AND JUICE CONCENTRATE
Common food item found in apricot; used in condiments.
40. l-ARGININE
natural constituent of proteins in plants and animals.
41. ASAFETIDA FLUID EXTRACT AND OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in condiments, candy, soups, meats.
42. ASCORBIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in citrus fruit, tea leaves; used in baked goods, sweet sauce, soups, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
43. l-ASPARAGINE MONOHYDRATE

; found in proteins, licorice.
44. l-ASPARTIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in proteins, licorice; used in seasonings.
45. BALSAM PERU AND OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in Peru balsam; used in baked goods, syrups, candy, chewing gum.
46. BASIL OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in basil used in baked goods, condiments, meats.
47. BAY LEAF, OIL AND SWEET OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in bay leaves; used in condiments, meat.
48. BEESWAX WHITE GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, honey.
49. BEET JUICE CONCENTRATE
Beets are included among "Miscellaneous Vegetables" in FDA Standards of Identity and are also covered by a USDA Standards for Grades.
50. BENZALDEHYDE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, almond, apricot, artichoke, asparagus, beans, beef, beer; used in baked goods, chewing gum.
51. BENZALDEHYDE GLYCERYL ACETAL
; FEMA GRAS

used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
52. BENZOIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cinnamon, strawberry, tea, apple, beer, bread, cocoa, honey; used in baked goods, cheese, candy, chewing gum, condiment relish.
53. BENZOIN; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, baked goods, candy, chewing gum.
54. BENZOIN RESIN; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
55. BENZOPHENONE; FEMA GRAS
found in grape, apples, papaya; used in frozen dairy products.
56. BENZYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beef, beer, almonds, apple, apple juice, asparagus, bananas, black currants, blackberries; used in chewing gum, candy, baked goods.
57. BENZYL BENZOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in celery, parsley, black currants, butter, guava, pineapple, papaya; used in ice cream, baked goods, candy.
58. BENZYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, apricot, banana, parmesan cheese, grape, honey, mango, melon, muskmelon, orange juice, papaya; used in candy.
59. BENZYL CINNAMATE; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, candy.
60. BENZYL PROPIONATE; FEMA GRAS
found in strawberry; used in candy.
61. BENZYL SALICYLATE; FEMA GRAS
found in cranberry, apple flowers; used in baked goods.
62. BERGAMOT OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in oranges; used in icings, gelatin, alcoholic beverages.
63. BISABOLENE - FEMA GRAS
found in carrot, ginger, hops, guava, mango, ginger; used in baked goods, candy.
64. BLACK CURRANT BUDS ABSOLUTE
FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
65. BORNEOL; FEMA GRAS found in carrot, blackberries, brandy, grapes, cocoa; used in baked goods.
66. BORNYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in carrot, black currants, gin, ginger, kiwi fruit, pistacia, plum, sweet potato, soy sauce, black and green tea; used in gelatin and puddings, candy, ice cream.
67. BUCHU LEAF OIL; FEMA GRAS
used in ice cream, ices, candy, condiments.
68. 1,3-BUTANEDIOL
used as solvent for natural and synthetic flavors.
69. 2,3-BUTANEDIONE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, bean, beef, butter, artichoke, avocado, black currents, blueberry, blue cheese, grape brandy, wheat, brussels sprouts; used in meat products.
70. 1-BUTANOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, banana, beef, celery, cheese (cheddar and Swiss), peach, potato; used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, cream, baked goods.
71. 2-BUTANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, banana, cauliflower, celery, chicken, coffee, milk, onion, tomato; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream ices, candy, baked goods.
72. 4(2-BUTENYLIDENE)-3,5,5-TRIMETHYL-2-CYCLOHEXEN-1-ONE
found in white-flesh nectarine, starfruit, grapefruit juice.
73. BUTTER, BUTTER ESTERS, AND BUTTER OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in butter; used in frozen dairy products.
74. BUTYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beer, black currant, cashew nuts, cheese, raspberry, apricot, blackberry, brandy, cantaloupe; used in cheeses, baked goods, candy.
75. BUTYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, apricot, blackberry, brandy, parmesan cheese, honey, mango, melon, muskmelon, orange juice, papaya; used in candy.
76. BUTYL BUTYRYL LACTATE; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, candy, sweet sauces.
77. BUTYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, banana, parmesan cheese, olives, pear, plum, strawberry, wine; used in baked goods.
78. BUTYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in papaya, alfalfa; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
79. BUTYL UNDECYLENATE; FEMA GRAS
no limitation for use in food other than good manufacturing practices.
80. 3-BUTYLIDENEPHTHALIDE - FEMA GRAS
found in celery, celery stalk; used in soups, condiments, meats.
81. BUTYRIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beef, beer, black currants, blueberries, wheat bread, butter, blue cheese; used in snack foods, candy, margarine.
82. CADINENE
found in grapefruit, orange juice, peach, pepper, peppermint, tea; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, meat products.
83. CAFFEINE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, tea, mate, kola nut; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
84. CALCIUM CARBONATE GRAS
no limitation for use in food other than good manufacturing practices. Used as a dietary supplement; also used in baked goods, chewing gum, beverages.
85. CAMPHENE; FEMA GRAS
found in carrot, cheddar cheese, ginger, apricot, black currants, blackberry, celery, gin, kiwi fruit; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
86. CANANGA OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods.
87. CAPSICUM OLEORESIN
found in pepper; used in non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, condiments, candy, chewing gum, meats.
88. CARAMEL COLOR GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in sugars; used in gravies, meats, condiments.
89. CARAWAY OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in caraway seeds; used in baked goods, condiments.
90. CARBON DIOXIDE GRAS
used in beverages, meat products, processed fruits, dairy products.
91. CARDAMOM OLEORESIN, EXTRACT, SEED OIL, AND POWDER GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cardamom; used in baked goods, pickles, meats.
92. CAROB BEAN AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in carob beans; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, icings and toppings.
93. beta-CAROTENE GRAS
found in carrot, pumpkin, spinach, broccoli, used in processed fruit and fruit juices, dairy products.
94. CARROT OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in carrots; used in baked goods.
95. CARVACROL; FEMA GRAS
found in pepper, spearmint, tea; used in baked goods, condiments, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
96. 4-CARVOMENTHENOL; FEMA GRAS
found in carrot, celery seed, cocoa powder, grape, grapefruit, orange, tea, wine; used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
97. l-CARVONE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in grapefruit juice, honey, hops oil, orange juice, beer, cherries, endive, guava, hazelnuts; used in candy, condiments, baked goods.
98. beta-CARYOPHYLLENE; FEMA GRAS
found in carrot, artichoke, banana, cashews, apples, celery, chervil, chicken, cocoa; used in chewing gum, ice cream, beverages.
99. beta-CARYOPHYLLENE OXIDE
found in rosemary; used in beverages, ice cream, candy, condiments.
100. CASCARILLA OIL AND BARK EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, condiments.
101. CASSIA BARK OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cassia; used in meat products.
102. CASSIE ABSOLUTE AND OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in cassie; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
103. CASTOREUM EXTRACT, TINCTURE AND ABSOLUTE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in castor; used in baked goods, condiments, candy, chewing gum.
104. CEDAR LEAF OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in Cedar tree; used in alcoholic beverages, meats, candy.
105. CEDARWOOD OIL TERPENES AND VIRGINIANA
found in cedarwood, clary sage oil.
106. CEDROL
found in Cypress wood, cedar wood; used in alcoholic beverages, meat products.
107. CELERY SEED EXTRACT, SOLID, OIL, AND OLEORESIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in celery seeds, celery; used in baked goods, meats, soups, condiments, pickles.
108. CELLULOSE FIBER
Natural polysaccharide which is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature; found in all plant material; used in grated cheese, fruit preserves/jams, fruit jellies.
109. CHAMOMILE FLOWER OIL AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in chamomile flowers; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods, gelatins and puddings.
110. CHICORY EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in chicory; used in baked goods, non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream.
111. CHOCOLATE GRAS
common food item.
112. CINNAMALDEHYDE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in beer, brandy, blueberries, cantaloupe, capers, cranberries, gin, guava, melon; used in gravies, candy, ice cream, meat.
113. CINNAMIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, blackberry, capers, cherry, grape, guava, malt, mango, mushroom, passion fruit, strawberry; used in soft candy.
114. CINNAMON LEAF OIL, BARK OIL, AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cinnamon tree; used in baked goods, chewing gum, candy, meats, condiments, pickles.
115. CINNAMYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in guava; used in candy, ice cream, condiments.
116. CINNAMYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in blackberry, blueberry, cantaloupe, cranberry, guava, melon, raspberry, strawberry, watermelon; used in non-alcoholic beverages.
117. CINNAMYL CINNAMATE, FEMA GRAS
found in storax; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
118. CINNAMYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in chestnut flowers; used in candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
119. CINNAMYL PROPIONATE; FEMA GRAS
used in hard candy.
120. CITRAL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in grapefruit juice, orange, orange juice, celery, apricot, black currants, grape, hops, kiwi fruit, mango, mango ginger, melon, plum, raspberry, rum; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
121. CITRIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
widely found in fruits and vegetables; used in fruit juices, meats, poultry, beverages.
122. CITRONELLA OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in citronella; used in alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods.
123. dl-CITRONELLOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, beer, black currants, blackberry, blueberry, orange juice, passion fruit, peach; used in soft candy.
124. CITRONELLYL BUTYRATE - FEMA GRAS

found in passion fruit, tomato; used in baked goods, candy, gelatins, puddings, non-alcoholic beverages.
125. CITRONELLYL ISOBUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
used in candy, gelatins and puddings, non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods.
126. CIVET ABSOLUTE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in civet; used in ice cream, candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
127. CLARY OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in clary sage; used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, condiments.
128. CLOVER TOPS, RED SOLID EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in clover flowers; used in jam and jelly.
129. COCOA, COCOA SHELLS, EXTRACT, DISTILLATE AND POWDER GRAS
found in cocoa, cocoa shells; used in baked goods.
130. COCONUT OIL
found in coconut; used in shortening and candies, chocolate.
131. COFFEE GRAS
found in coffee; used in baked goods, candy, syrups.
132. COGNAC WHITE AND GREEN OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cognac brandy; used in alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods.
133. COPAIBA OIL
found in copaiba.
134. CORIANDER EXTRACT AND OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in coriandar; used in baked goods, meats, condiments.
135. CORN OIL
found in corn; used in baked goods, maragarine, salad oils.
136. CORN SILK GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in corn; used in baked goods, beverages, candy, desserts.
137. COSTUS ROOT OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in Costus root; used in candy, baked goods.
138. CUBEB OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in Piper cubebs; used in condiment relish.
139. CUMINALDEHYDE FEMA GRAS
found in beef, black currants, honey, mango, bonito, grape brandy, pistacia fruit; used in baked goods, chewing gum, frozen dairy products.
140. para-CYMENE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, banana, beans, beli, black currants, brandy apple, carrots, celery; used in chewing gum.
141. l-CYSTEINE GRAS FEMA GRAS
natural constituent of protein in plants and animals; found in Pippali fruit (India); used in condiment relish; beverages, meats, baked goods, dairy products.
142. DANDELION ROOT SOLID EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in dandelions; used in baked goods.
143. DAVANA OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in Artemisia plant; used in alcoholic beverages.
144. 2-trans,4-trans-DECADIENAL; FEMA GRAS
found in chicken, cranberry, peanut, tomato; used in vegetables, baked goods, meat, candy, chewing gum, cereals.
145. delta-DECALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beef fat, butter, black currants, blackberry, blue cheese, cheddar cheese, chicken, coconut, cranberry, cream; used in baked goods, margarine, candy.
146. gamma-DECALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beef, butter, beer, blue cheese, grape brandy, plum brandy, wheat bread, cantaloupe, cheese; used in baked goods, frozen dairy products.
147. DECANAL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in almond, apple, apple flowers, apricot, artichoke, avocado, beef, wheat bread; used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
148. DECANOIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple flowers, banana, beef, beer, blackberries, blue cheese, brandies, wheat bread, butter, heated butter; used in imitation dairy goods.
149. 1-DECANOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, apricot, asparagus, banana, beer, brandy apple, butter; used in frozen dairy goods, ice cream, beverages, candy.
150. 2-DECENAL; FEMA GRAS
found in carrot root, chicken, orange, soybean; used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
151. DEHYDROMENTHOFUROLACTONE - FEMA GRAS
used in chewing gum.
152. DIETHYL MALONATE; FEMA GRAS
found in whiskey, wine, blackberry, grape brandy, strawberry wine.
153. DIETHYL SEBACATE; FEMA GRAS
used in chewing gum, candy, baked goods.
154. 2,3-DIETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in wheat bread, wheat, hazelnut, baked potato, soy sauce; used in candy, gelatin and puddings.
155. DIHYDRO ANETHOLE - FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, dairy products, baked goods.
156. 5,7-DIHYDRO-2-METHYLTHIENO(3,4-D) PYRIMIDINE - FEMA GRAS
used in breakfast cereals, beverages, ice cream, candy, dairy products.
157. DILL SEED OIL AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in dill; used in cheese, meats, sauces, dips, baked goods.
158. meta-DIMETHOXYBENZENE; FEMA GRAS
found in brandy grape, salami, filberts; used in meat products, beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
159. para-DIMETHOXYBENZENE; FEMA GRAS
found in tea, hyacinth oil, peppermint oil; used in gelatin pudding, beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
160. 2,6-DIMETHOXYPHENOL - FEMA GRAS
found in maple syrup, rum, smoked sausage, wine; used in seafood, meat, baked goods, candy, soups.
161. DIMETHYL SUCCINATE; FEMA GRAS
found in blackberry, hazelnut; used in hard candy, beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
162. 3,4-DIMETHYL-1,2-CYCLOPENTANEDIONE - FEMA GRAS
found in roasted coffee; used in nut products, beverages, ice cream, candy.
163. 3,5-DIMETHYL-1,2-CYCLOPENTANEDIONE - FEMA GRAS
found in roasted coffee; used in soft candy.
164. 3,7-DIMETHYL-1,3,6-OCTATRIENE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, guava, pineapple, tomato; used in frozen dairy goods.
165. 4,5-DIMETHYL-3-HYDROXY-2,5-DIHYDROFURAN-2-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in almond, asparagus, wheat bread, butter, chicken, steamed clam, cocoa, coconut, coffee, corn; used in baked goods, sweet sauce.
166. 6,10-DIMETHYL-5,9-UNDECADIEN-2-ONE; FEMA GRAS
found in almond, asparagus, beans, beef, beer, cashew nuts, parmesan cheese, chicken; used in baked goods, candy, dairy products.
167. 3,7-DIMETHYL-6-OCTENOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint oil; used in baked goods.
168. 2,4-DIMETHYLACETOPHENONE; FEMA GRAS
found in coffee; used in baked goods.
169. alpha,para-DIMETHYLBENZYL ALCOHOL - FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy.
170. alpha,alpha-DIMETHYLPHENETHYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricots, black currants, custard apple, grapefruit, pineapples, peppermint, nectarines; used in soft candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
171. alpha,alpha-DIMETHYLPHENETHYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in Sake; used in frozen dairy goods, beverages, candy, baked goods.
172. 2,3-DIMETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, peanut, coffee, potato; used in gravies, beverages, candy, baked goods.
173. 2,5-DIMETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, blackberry, grape brandy, cantaloupe, corn, endive, grapefruit juice; used in breakfast cereal.
174. 2,6-DIMETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in citronella, camphor oil; used in milk products, meat, candy.
175. DIMETHYL TETRA HYDROBENZO FURANONE - FEMA GRAS
found in dried bonito, black and green tea, wine; used in chewing gum.
176. delta-DODECALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in beef, butter, milk, blue cheese, cheddar cheese, chicken, coconut, lamb/mutton, peach, plum, pork; used in meat products, baked goods, candy.
177. gamma-DODECALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beef, beer, blackberry, blue cheese, butter, carambola (starfruit), cheddar cheese, chervil, chicken; used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
178. para-ETHOXYBENZALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
179. ETHYL 10-UNDECENOATE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
180. ETHYL 2-METHYLBUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, beer, bilberry, blackberry, brandy apple, brandy grape, cantaloupe, fig, grape, honeydew melon; used in hard candy, beverages, ice cream.
181. ETHYL ACETATE GRAS FEMA GRAS

found in apple, apple juice, banana, beans, beef, beer, blue cheese, blueberry; used in chewing gum, beverages, ice cream, candy.
182. ETHYL ACETOACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in passion fruit, sherry, strawberry, wine; used in soft candy.
183. ETHYL ALCOHOL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, bread, coffee, cucumber, potato. As required by BATF regulations, nicotine sulfate is used to denature the alcohol, which is used as a solvent to apply flavors during processing. There is no measurable effect on the nicotine level of the finished cigarette as a result of this process.
184. ETHYL BENZOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, arctic bramble, babaco fruit, banana, beer, beli, bilberry, bilberry wine, black currants, blackberry, brandy apple; used in gelatin pudding, beverages, ice cream, candy.
185. ETHYL BUTYRATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, banana, beer, apricot, beef, blue cheese, brandy; used in chewing gum.
186. ETHYL CINNAMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, blackberry, brandy apple; used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
187. ETHYL DECANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, banana, beef, wheat bread, butter, cheddar cheese; used in frozen dairy goods, ice cream, candy.
188. ETHYL FENCHOL - FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, chewing gum, dairy products.
189. ETHYL FUROATE
found in cocoa, almonds, beer, guava, kiwi fruit, papaya, white wine; used in processed meats.
190. ETHYL HEPTANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in cashew apple, cocoa, grape, grapefruit juice, hazelnut roasted, hops, milk, olive, papaya mountain, passion fruit, peach; used in chewing gum.
191. ETHYL HEXANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, beer, cheese, beef, black currants, blackberry, brandies, broccoli; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
192. ETHYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, celery, apple, beer, brandy, cantaloupes, cashew apple, parmesan cheese; used in condiments, ice cream, baked goods.
193. ETHYL LACTATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, cocoa, pineapple, apricot, bilberry wine, brandy, butter, capers, chicken, meat, elderberry, elderberry juice, grape, peas, plum; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
194. ETHYL LAURATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, cheddar cheese, apricot, bilberry wine, blackberry, brandy, wheat bread, butter; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
195. ETHYL LEVULINATE; FEMA GRAS
found in bilberry wine, brandy grape, wheat bread, cherimoya, cocoa, onion roasted, rum, wine; used in frozen dairy goods, beverages, candy, baked goods.
196. ETHYL MALTOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice; used in sweet sauce, soups, meat, candy.
197. ETHYL METHYL PHENYLGLYCIDATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in condiment relish, beverages, candy, ice cream.
198. ETHYL MYRISTATE; FEMA GRAS
found in cheddar cheese, grape wine, Bartlett pear; used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
199. ETHYL NONANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, banana, beef, beer, bilberry wine, brandy apple, wheat bread, cocoa, elderberry, grape, nectarine, olive, peach; used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
200. ETHYL OCTADECANOATE - FEMA GRAS
found in grapes, beer, brandy, maple syrup; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, alcoholic beverages.
201. ETHYL OCTANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beer, blue cheese, apricot, bilberry wine, blackberry, brandy, wheat bread, broccoli, butter, capers; used in frozen dairy goods.
202. ETHYL OLEATE; FEMA GRAS
found in melons, grapes, brandy, maple syrup; used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, condiments and relishes.
203. ETHYL PALMITATE - FEMA GRAS
found in cheddar cheese, maple syrup, grape wine; used in nut products.
204. ETHYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, crisp bread, honey, beer, beli, bilberry wine, brandy, wheat bread, cantaloupe, chempedak fruit, cocoa, grape, grapefruit juice, guava, licorice, melon; used in gelatin and puddings, syrups, baked goods.
205. ETHYL PROPIONATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, apricot, banana, beer, bilberry, blackberry, brandy, cantaloupe, cheddar cheese, cocoa, fig, grape, guava; used in baked goods, meat products, ice cream.
206. ETHYL SALICYLATE; FEMA GRAS
found in strawberries, raspberries, wine, blackberry, brandy, mountain papaya, rum; used in baked goods, ice cream, chewing gum.
207. ETHYL trans-2-BUTENOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, cocoa, plum brandy, cantaloupe, cashews, dalieb fruit, grape, guava, kiwi fruit, mango, papaya; used in candy, baked goods.
208. ETHYL VALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, grape, apricot, bilberry wine, black currants, brandy, cashew apples, parmesan cheese, fig, guava, honey, kiwi fruit, melon, muskmelon; used in chewing gum, baked goods, beverages.
209. ETHYL VANILLIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in vanilla beans; used in alcoholic beverages, imitation vanilla extract, breakfast cereals.
210. 2-ETHYL(OR METHYL)-(3,5 AND 6)-METHOXYPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, potato sprouts; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
211. 2-ETHYL-1-HEXANOL - FEMA GRAS
used in Non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, chewing gum.
212. 3-ETHYL-2-HYDROXY-2-CYCLOPENTEN-1-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, maple syrup, peanuts, pork; used in baked goods, soups, cereals, condiments, milk and dairy products.
213. 2-ETHYL-3,(5 OR 6)-DIMETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, coffee, bread; used in baked goods, cereals, candy, dairy products.
214. 5-ETHYL-3-HYDROXY-4-METHYL-2(5H)-FURANONE - FEMA GRAS
nature identical by FEMA; found in beef, beer, wheat bread, cashew nuts, chicken, cocoa, coconut, coffee, crayfish, eggs, hazelnut; used in chewing gum, meat products.
215. 2-ETHYL-3-METHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, whole egg, chicken, heated corn oil, krill, lamb/mutton, boiled shrimp, fermented soy sauce; used in candy, ice cream, beverages.
216. 4-ETHYLBENZALDEHYDE - FEMA GRAS
found in oranges, carrots, broccoli, tomatoes; used in Baked goods, meat products, candy, gelatins and puddings, confectionery/frosting, cereals, dairy products.
217. 4-ETHYLGUAIACOL; FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, cranberry, smoked pork, rum, smoked sausage, tea, wine; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices.
218. para-ETHYLPHENOL - FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, coffee, peanut, tomato, wine; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, meat products.
219. 3-ETHYLPYRIDINE - FEMA GRAS
found in Beef, chicken, coffee, corn oil, almond, barley, beer, wheat bread, cocoa, eggs; used in candy, ice cream, meat, baked goods.
220. EUCALYPTOL; FEMA GRAS
found in black currants, blueberries, brandy, cantaloupe, cheese, cocoa, grapes, thyme, babaco fruit, bilberry, corn; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
221. FARNESOL; FEMA GRAS
found in oranges, lemon grass; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings.
222. D-FENCHONE; FEMA GRAS
found in anise, basil, fennel, peppermint, saffron, thyme; used in ice cream, candy, baked goods.
223. FENNEL SWEET OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in fennel seeds; used in candy, alcoholic beverages, meats.
224. FENUGREEK, EXTRACT, RESIN, AND ABSOLUTE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in fenugreek; used in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatin and puddings, syrups.
225. FIG JUICE CONCENTRATE
Common food item; found in figs.
226. FOOD STARCH MODIFIED
widespread; used in cured pork.
227. FURFURYL MERCAPTAN FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, beef, chicken, meat, popcorn; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, icings.
228. 4-(2-FURYL)-3-BUTEN-2-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, alcoholic beverages.
229. GALBANUM OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in galbanum; used in meat products, baked goods, ice cream.
230. GENET ABSOLUTE; FEMA GRAS
found in genet flowers; used in candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
231. GENTIAN ROOT EXTRACT - FEMA GRAS
found in Gentian root; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, alcoholic beverages.
232. GERANIOL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apples, apricot, beer, bilberry, black currants, blackberries; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
233. GERANIUM ROSE OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in geranium leaves and stems; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
234. GERANYL ACETATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in celery, cocoa, black currants, chervil, gin, ginger, grape, grapefruit juice, orange juice, passion fruit, pineapple, plum; used in baked goods, ice cream, syrups.
235. GERANYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in celery, tomatoes, passion fruit; used in gelatins and puddings, ice cream, candy.
236. GERANYL FORMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in hops, black and green tea; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
237. GERANYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
used in Non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, chewing gum.
238. GERANYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in Olibanum resin, sativa japonica; used in gelatins and puddings, baked goods, ice cream.
239. GINGER OIL AND OLEORESIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in ginger; used in candy, baked goods, meats.
240. l-GLUTAMIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
natural constituent of proteins in plants and animals; used in baked goods, meat, soups, milk/dairy products, condiments, pickles, cereal.
241. l-GLUTAMINE; FEMA GRAS
natural constituent of proteins in plants and animals; used in baked goods, meat products, candy, nut products, seasonings and flavorings.
242. GLYCEROL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in beer, cherry, wine; used in milk products, baked goods, meat products.
243. GLYCYRRHIZIN AMMONIATED GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in licorice; used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods, chewing gum, ice cream, ices.
244. GRAPE JUICE CONCENTRATE
common food item; found in grapes.
245. GUAIAC WOOD OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in guaiac wood; used in meat products, ice cream, chewing gum.
246. GUAIACOL; FEMA GRAS
found in celery, cocoa, coffee, rum, soybean, tea, tomato, whiskey, wine; used in ice cream, ices, baked goods, meat, chewing gum, dairy products.
247. GUAR GUM - FEMA GRAS
found in the seed of the guar plant which is similar to the soybean plant; used in breakfast cereal, dairy products, gravies, processed vegetables, baked goods.
248. 2,4-HEPTADIENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in avocado, beef, black currants, bread, wheat, broccoli, butter, heated butter, cabbage, cauliflower; used in meat products, baked goods, soups, candy.
249. gamma-HEPTALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in mango, passion fruit, peach, black tea, asparagus, butter, hazelnut, lamb/mutton, leek, licorice, nectarine, papaya, pineapple; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
250. HEPTANOIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, banana, beef, dried blue cheese, brandy, bread, wheat butter, cheddar cheese; used in baked goods, margarine, ice cream.
251. 2-HEPTANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, banana, beer, beef, apricot, asparagus, beans, blue cheese, wheat butter; used in gravies, ice cream, condiments, baked goods.
252. 3-HEPTEN-2-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in capsicum peppers, hazelnut, hops, muruci; used in gelatin and puddings, ice cream, baked goods.
253. 2-HEPTEN-4-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in roasted filbert; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
254. 4-HEPTENAL; FEMA GRAS
found in butterfat, soybean oil; used in Non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meat, candy, cereal, dairy products.
255. trans-2-HEPTENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in apple, chicken, cranberry, green pea, potato, tomato; used in Baked goods, meat, meat sauces, soups, candy.
256. HEPTYL ACETATE - FEMA GRAS
found in apples, grapes, bananas, pears, plums, whiskey; used in baked goods, gelatins and puddings, chewing gum.
257. omega-6-HEXADECENLACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in Ambrette seed; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
258. gamma-HEXALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beef, butter, apple, asparagus, beer, blackberry, brandy, wheat bread; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
259. HEXANAL; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, bananas, beef, bilberries, apricot, artichoke, asparagus, avocado, barley, beer, blackberry, blueberry, others; used in frozen dairy goods, baked goods, meat.
260. HEXANOIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beef, beer, apricot, banana, barley, blackberry, blue cheese, blueberry, bread, wheat; used in condiment relish, ice cream, candy.
261. 2-HEXEN-1-OL; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, apricots, bananas, beer, Swiss cheese, peaches, used in Non-alcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings.
262. 3-HEXEN-1-OL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, bean, celery, grape, apricot, cantaloupe, pineapple, honeydew melon; used in chewing gum, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
263. cis-3-HEXEN-1-YL ACETATE - FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, apricot, artichoke, asparagus, avocado, banana, beans, beef, beer, blackberry, blueberry, dried bonito, grape brandy, wheat bread; used in ices, candy, baked goods.
264. 2-HEXENAL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, raspberry, strawberry, beer, chicken, fat, grape, guava, hops, peach, pork, black and green tea; used in frozen dairy goods, baked goods, candy.
265. 3-HEXENOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in banana, pork fat, raspberry, black tea; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, dairy products, candy, chewing gum.
266. trans-2-HEXENOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in apples, bananas, beer, apple juice, artichoke, beans, beef, blackberry, blueberry; used in beverages, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, frozen desserts.
267. cis-3-HEXENYL FORMATE - FEMA GRAS
found in tea, cognac; used in baked goods, chewing gum, preserves and spreads.
268. HEXYL 2-METHYLBUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, strawberries, apricot, apple brandy, grape, Asian pear, plum, native spearmint; used in gelatins and puddings, candy, ice cream.
269. HEXYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, bananas, beer, apricot, beef, black currants, blackberry, blueberry, brandy, cantaloupe, capers, coffee; used in candy, baked goods, meat products.
270. HEXYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beef, chicken, coffee, pineapple, potato; used in baked goods, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
271. HEXYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in grape, tea, scotch spearmint, black and green tea; used in frozen dairy goods, candy, baked goods.
272. l-HISTIDINE - FEMA GRAS
found in milk, cheese, grains, meats, poultry, eggs, fish, vegetables, nuts, fruit; used in baked goods, meat products, milk products, confectionery and frosting.
273. HONEY
common food item.
274. HOPS OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in gelatin pudding, chewing gum, baked goods.
275. HYDROLYZED MILK SOLIDS - USDA approved meat flavor
found in milk; used in meats, sauces and stuffings.
276. HYDROLYZED PLANT PROTEINS GRAS
found in plants; used in baked goods, milk and dairy products, meat products, baby formulas, soups, condiments and relishes.
277. 5-HYDROXY-2,4-DECADIENOIC ACID delta-LACTONE - FEMA GRAS
found in peaches, beef; used in chewing gum, cheese, condiments.
278. 4-HYDROXY-2,5-DIMETHYL-3(2H)-FURANONE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, maple syrup, cassia oil; used in frozen dairy goods, baked goods, candy.
279. 2-HYDROXY-3,5,5-TRIMETHYL-2-CYCLOHEXEN-1-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in rose oil, gardenia; used in frozen dairy goods, candy.
280. 4-HYDROXY-3-PENTENOIC ACID LACTONE - FEMA GRAS
found in bread, grapes, soy beans; used in ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, gelatins and puddings, meat, meat sauces, soups, milk and dairy products, cereals.
281. 2-HYDROXY-4-METHYLBENZALDEHYDE - FEMA GRAS
found in blackberry, capers, cranberry, raspberry, sea buckthorn; used in baked goods.
282. 4-HYDROXYBUTANOIC ACID LACTONE - FEMA GRAS
found in apricots, bread, coffee, cocoa, mushroom, onion, wine; used in dairy products, breakfast cereals, meat products.
283. HYDROXYCITRONELLAL; FEMA GRAS
found in beef, mushroom, nectarine, peach; used in candy, ice cream, baked goods.
284. 6-HYDROXYDIHYDROTHEASPIRANE - FEMA GRAS
found in black tea; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, gelatin and puddings.
285. 4-(para-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2-BUTANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in almond, beef, coffee, grape, guava, hazelnut, pineapple, popcorn, raspberry, soy sauce, strawberry; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
286. HYSSOP OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
287. IMMORTELLE ABSOLUTE AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum, frozen dairy products.
288. alpha-IONONE; FEMA GRAS
found in raspberry, almond, banana, blackberry, grape brandy, raspberry brandy, capers, carrots, celery, cherry, grapefruit juice, kumazasa, mango ginger, peach, peas, plum; used in chewing gum., ice cream, baked goods
289. beta-IONONE; FEMA GRAS
found in carrot, almonds, apricot, beer, blackberry, brandy, broccoli, capers, cherry, endive; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
290. alpha-IRONE; FEMA GRAS
found in raspberry; used in baked goods, frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, alcoholic beverages.
291. ISOAMYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beer, apricot, blackberry, blackberry brandy, wheat bread, butter; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
292. ISOAMYL BENZOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, cherries, cocoa, papaya; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
293. ISOAMYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, blue cheese, grape, apple, apricot, beer, apple brandy, grape brandy, guava, honey, mango; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods, chewing gum.
294. ISOAMYL CINNAMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in wine, cinnamon, styrax; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
295. ISOAMYL FORMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, chicken, honey, eggs, rum, strawberries, tea, vinegar, grape brandy, whiskey, wine; used in baked goods, candy.
296. ISOAMYL HEXANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, banana, grapefruit juice, plums, strawberries, beer, grape brandy, plum brandy, rum, sherry; used in candy, chewing gum.
297. ISOAMYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, tomato, beer, sherry, spearmint, scotch; used in frozen dairy goods, candy.
298. ISOAMYL OCTANOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, beer, grape, strawberry; used in baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, alcoholic beverages.
299. ISOAMYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint oil; used in baked goods, candy, chewing gum.
300. ISOBORNYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in Kiwi fruit; used in soft candy.
301. ISOBUTYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, bananas, cantaloupe, cocoa, figs, honeydew melon, beer, grape, guava, mango, melon; used in chewing gum, gelatin and puddings.
302. ISOBUTYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in beef, blackberry, apple, apricot, banana, barley, brandy; used in gelatin and puddings, candy, baked goods.
303. ISOBUTYL CINNAMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, tomato, mullein leaves; used in candy, ice cream, baked goods.
304. ISOBUTYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
305. ISOBUTYL SALICYLATE; FEMA GRAS
found in Feijoa fruit; used in soft candy, baked goods.
306. 2-ISOBUTYL-3-METHOXYPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in bean, coffee, pea, pepper, potato, spinach, grape; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice crem, dairy products.
307. alpha-ISOBUTYLPHENETHYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, gelatin and puddings, baked goods.
308. ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, barley, beans, beef, beer, blue cheese, brandy, bread, wheat, butter; used in gelatin and puddings, candy, frozen dairy products.
309. ISOBUTYRIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beef, beer, celery, banana, blue cheese, grape brandy, wheat bread, cashew apples, cheddar cheese; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
310. d,l-ISOLEUCINE - FEMA GRAS
natural constituent of protein in plants and animals; used in milk products, meat products, condiment relish, soups.
311. alpha-ISOMETHYLIONONE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
312. 2-ISOPROPYLPHENOL - FEMA GRAS
found in Japanese whiskey; used in meat, soups, condiments.
313. ISOVALERIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, banana, blue cheese, grape brandy, wheat bread, heated butter, capers, cashew apples, cheddar cheese; used in frozen dairy goods, candy, cheese.
314. JASMINE ABSOLUTE, CONCRETE and OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in Jasmine flowers; used in baked goods, chewing gum, candy.
315. KOLA NUT EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in kola nut; used in gelatin pudding, ice cream, candy.
316. LABDANUM ABSOLUTE AND OLEORESIN; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, frozen dairy products, gelatin and puddings.
317. LACTIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, beef, beer, bread, cocoa, coffee, wheat bread, cherry, grape, guava, mango, milk, papaya, dry salami, sherry, tomato; used in cheese, candy, chewing gum, baked goods.
318. LAURIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, blue cheese, banana, beef, blackberry, brandy, wheat bread, butter, heated butter, cantaloupe, cashew nuts; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
319. LAURIC ALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, beef, beer, wheat bread, carrots, celery, cheddar cheese, blackberry, butter, cabbage, caviar, chicken; used in chewing gum, baked goods, candy.
320. LAVANDIN OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in lavender plant; used in baked goods, candy, chewing gum.
321. LAVENDER OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in lavender flowers; used in soft candy, baked goods, gelatin and puddings.
322. LEMON OIL AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in lemons; used in candy, breakfast cereals, frozen dairy products.
323. LEMONGRASS OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in lemongrass; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
324. l-LEUCINE; FEMA GRAS
found in proteins; essential amino acid; used in soups, baked goods, breakfast cereals.
325. LEVULINIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in wheat bread, papaya; used in reconstituted vegetables, ice cream, baked goods.
326. LICORICE ROOT, FLUID EXTRACT AND POWDER GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in glycyrrhizia; used in candy, baked goods, meat products.
327. LIME OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in lime; used in frozen dairy goods, candy.
328. LINALOOL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in banana, beer, blackberry, beans, blueberry, apple, apricot, arctice bramble, artichoke, grape brandy, plum brandy; used in meat products.
329. LINALOOL OXIDE; FEMA GRAS
found in oranges, apricot, coffee; used in ice cream, baked goods, candy.
330. LINALYL ACETATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in bergamot, clary sage, lemon oil, pepper, tomato, lavender; used in baked goods, dairy products, candy.
331. LINDEN FLOWERS GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in linden flowers; used in non-alcoholic beverages.
332. LOVAGE OIL AND EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in levisticum; used in sweet sauce, alcoholic beverages, ice cream.
333. l-LYSINE
amino acid, natural constituent of plant and animal proteins; used in meat products, breakfast cereals.
334. MACE POWDER, EXTRACT AND OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in mace; used in alcoholic beverages, candy, frozen dairy products.
335. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE GRAS
used in flour, baked goods, frozen dairy products.
336. MALIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in celery, cocoa, orange juice, grape brandy, sour cherry, gin, grapefruit juice, honey, hops, kiwi fruit, mango, mushroom; used in frozen dairy goods, candy, baked goods.
337. MALT AND MALT EXTRACT GRAS
found in barley; used in beer, frozen dairy products, baked goods.
338. MALTODEXTRIN GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, frozen dairy.
339. MALTOL; FEMA GRAS
found in barley, cocoa, coffee, beef, wheat bread, butter, hazelnut, licorice, malt, milk, peanut; used in frozen dairy goods, jellies, baked goods.
340. MALTYL ISOBUTYRATE - FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, jam and jelly.
341. MANDARIN OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in tangerines, mandarin oranges; used in candy, frozen dairy products.
342. MAPLE SYRUP AND CONCENTRATE
common food item.
343. MATE LEAF, ABSOLUTE, AND OIL GRAS
found in mate leaves; used in flour, meat, poultry.
344. para-MENTHA-8-THIOL-3-ONE - FEMA GRAS
used in frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, baked goods.
345. MENTHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint plant, honey, mint, rum, cocoa, eggs, guava, raspberry, rice, spearmint; used in candy, mouthwash.
346. MENTHONE; FEMA GRAS
found in celery, clams, cocoa, peppermint, raspberries, rice, spearmint; used in baked goods, candy.
347. MENTHYL ACETATE - FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint oil, orange juice, raspberries; used in baked goods, frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin and pudding.
348. dl-METHIONINE; FEMA GRAS
natural constituent of protein in plants and animals; used in breakfast cereals, meat products, condiment relish, soups.
349. METHOPRENE
EPA approved pesticide for use on tobacco; allowed by FDA to be used in raisins, prunes, peaches, oat cereals; also approved by EPA for eggs, milk, poultry.
350. 2-METHOXY-4-METHYLPHENOL; FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, sausage, banana, beer, coffee; used in baked goods, meat products.
351. 2-METHOXY-4-VINYLPHENOL; FEMA GRAS
found in bean, coffee, sherry, whiskey, banana, beer, cocoa, cured ham, malt; used in meat products, ice cream, baked goods.
352. para-METHOXYBENZALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, tea, tomato, beer, krill; used in baked goods, candy, dairy products.
353. 1-(para-METHOXYPHENYL)-1-PENTEN-3-ONE; FEMA GRAS
found in jasmine, Ylang Ylang; used in soft candy, sweet sauce, baked goods.
354. 4-(para-METHOXYPHENYL)-2-BUTANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beer, brandy, grapes, cantaloupe, cranberry, honey, melon, peppermint, plum, raspberry, salami; used in candy, baked goods.
355. 1-(para-METHOXYPHENYL)-2-PROPANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in chervil; used in baked goods, frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin and puddings.
356. METHOXYPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, cocoa; used in meat products, soups, gravies, baked goods.
357. METHYL 2-FUROATE - FEMA GRAS
found in almond, cocoa, coffee, peanut, wine; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
358. METHYL 2-OCTYNOATE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, frozen dairy products, gelatin and puddings.
359. METHYL 2-PYRROLYL KETONE - FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, cocoa, coffee, onion, peanut; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, meat products.
360. METHYL ANISATE; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy, baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings.
361. METHYL ANTHRANILATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, grape, tea, wine, coffee, strawberry; used in baked goods, candy, frozen dairy products.
362. METHYL BENZOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, cherry, coffee, brandy, butter, cashew apple; used in chewing gum, ice cream, candy.
363. METHYL CINNAMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in guava, strawberry, cranberry, pineapple, plum; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
364. METHYL DIHYDROJASMONATE - FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy.
365. METHYL ESTER OF ROSIN, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED
used in baked goods, candy.
366. METHYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, peach, pineapple, banana, blackberry, parmesan cheese, coffee, honey, nectarine, olives, peas, strawberries; used in candy, baked goods.
367. METHYL LINOLEATE (48%) METHYL LINOLENATE (52%) MIXTURE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, grape, grapefruit juice, melon, strawberries; used in ice cream, baked goods, candy.
368. METHYL NAPHTHYL KETONE; FEMA GRAS
found in beef (heated); used in chewing gum.
369. METHYL NICOTINATE - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, nuts, strawberry, beef, beer, guava, hazelnuts, peanut, plum; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
370. METHYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, cocoa; used in candy, syrups, baked goods.
371. METHYL SALICYLATE; FEMA GRAS
found in blackberry, broccoli, butter, cherry cake, coffee; used in candy, ice cream, syrups.
372. METHYL SULFIDE; FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, bean, beef, beer, white bread, brussels sprouts, butter, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, broccoli; used in meat products, candy, ice cream.
373. 3-METHYL-1-CYCLOPENTADECANONE - FEMA GRAS
found in grape brandy, lamb/muttonm potato; used in baked goods.
374. 4-METHYL-1-PHENYL-2-PENTANONE; FEMA GRAS
used in gelatin pudding.
375. 5-METHYL-2-PHENYL-2-HEXENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in romano cheese, potato chips; used in soft candy.
376. 5-METHYL-2-THIOPHENECARBOXALDEHYDE - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, roasted peanut, popcorn, cooked beef; used in baked goods, meats, soups, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum, dairy products, condiments.
377. 6-METHYL-3,5-HEPTADIEN-2-ONE; FEMA GRAS
found in almonds, asparagus, beef, beer, wheat bread, cashew nuts, chicken; used in snack foods.
378. 2-METHYL-3-(para-ISOPROPYLPHENYL) PROPIONALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in almond, beans, beef, beer, wheat bread, chicken, cocoa, coffee, guava, macadamia nut; used in gelatin pudding.
379. 5-METHYL-3-HEXEN-2-ONE - FEMA GRAS found in roasted filbert; used in baked goods, cereals, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
380. 1-METHYL-3-METHOXY-4-ISOPROPYLBENZENE - FEMA GRAS
found in tangerine peel, thyme; used in non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meat, candy, condiments.
381. 4-METHYL-3-PENTENE-2-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in rye bread, coffee, tea, peanut; used in non-alcoholic beverages, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
382. 2-METHYL-4-PHENYLBUTYRALDEHYDE - FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy, gelatin and puddings.
383. 6-METHYL-5-HEPTEN-2-ONE; FEMA GRAS found in guava, mango, potato, rum; used in gravies, candy, baked goods.
384. 4-METHYL-5-THIAZOLEETHANOL - FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, malt, peanuts roasted; used in meat products.
385. 4-METHYL-5-VINYLTHIAZOLE - FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, nuts, passion fruit; used in Ice cream, baked goods, meat sauce, candy, chewing gum.
386. METHYL-alpha-IONONE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods.
387. METHYL-trans-2-BUTENOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in celery oil, orange juice crystals, coffee, strawberry; used in baked goods, meat products, soups.
388. 4-METHYLACETOPHENONE; FEMA GRAS
found in hop oil, cocoa powder, black currant; used in chewing gum.
389. para-METHYLANISOLE; FEMA GRAS
found in cocoa, malt, peanut, pork, potato chips, sesame seeds; used in baked goods.
390. alpha-METHYLBENZYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in grape brandy, rice, tea, tomato, tomato paste; used in chewing gum.
391. alpha-METHYLBENZYL ALCOHOL - FEMA GRAS
found in mushroom, hops, grapes, endive, cranberry; used in baked goods.
392. 2-METHYLBUTYRALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in beef, apple, cheddar cheese, coffee, cranberry, eggs, fish, lettuce, olive, onion, peas, tomato; used in gelatin pudding.
393. 3-METHYLBUTYRALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, bread, tomato, rice, blackberry; used in baked goods.
394. 2-METHYLBUTYRIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, avocado, beef, beer, blackberry, brandy, butter, cantaloupes, carrots; used in cheese, ice cream, candy.
395. alpha-METHYLCINNAMALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in blackberry, cauliflower, cherry, cocoa, endive, guava, honey, peach; used in candy.
396. METHYLCYCLOPENTENOLONE; FEMA GRAS
found in carambola (starfruit), cheese, tomato; used in breakfast cereals, baked goods, candy.
397. 2-METHYLHEPTANOIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in gardenia flower oil, almonds, cocoa, coffee, soy sauce, onions; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
398. 2-METHYLHEXANOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in apple, avocado, banana, barley, beans, beef, beer, blackberry, blue cheese, wheat bread, butter; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
399. 3-METHYLPENTANOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, beer, blackberry, blueberry, wheat bread, romano cheese, chicken; used in baked goods.
400. 4-METHYLPENTANOIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in apple, grapes, cocoa, strawberry, tomato; used in condiment relish.
401. 2-METHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint oil, tomato, popcorn; used in milk products, baked goods, candy.
402. 5-METHYLQUINOXALINE - FEMA GRAS
found in roasted almonds, coffee; used in frozen dairy, beverages, candy, gelatins.
403. 2-METHYLTETRAHYDROFURAN-3-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee; used in gravies.
404. (METHYLTHIO)METHYLPYRAZINE (MIXTURE OF ISOMERS); FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy.
405. 3-METHYLTHIOPROPIONALDEHYDE - FEMA GRAS
found in bean, bread, cheese, cocoa bean, roasted nuts, milk, soy sauce, tomato; used in ice cream, ices, baked goods, diary products, fats/oils.
406. METHYL 3-METHYLTHIOPROPIONATE; FEMA GRAS
found in cantaloupe, pineapple; used in candy, baked goods, beverages, syrups.
407. 2-METHYLVALERIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in almond, barley, wheat bread, cocoa, coffee, hazelnut, licorice, malt, peanut, soy sauce, lamb/mutton; used in frozen dairy products, candy.
408. MIMOSA ABSOLUTE AND EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in Mimosa flowers; used in frozen dairy products.
409. MOLASSES EXTRACT AND TINCTURE GRAS
found in refined sugars; common food item.
410. MOUNTAIN MAPLE SOLID EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in mountain maple tree sap; used in baked goods.
411. MULLEIN FLOWER
natural flavor.
412. MYRISTALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, cucumber; used in frozen dairy products, beverages, baked goods, gelatin.
413. MYRISTIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beef, beer, blackberry, brandy grape, butter, cantaloupe, cashew nuts, cheese (blue, cheddar); used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy, baked goods.
414. MYRRH OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in myrrh; used in alcoholic beverages.
415. beta-NAPTHYL ETHYL ETHER - FEMA GRAS
used in soft candy.
416. NEROL; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beer, blackberry, blueberry, brandy grape, cranberry, gin, grape, grapefruit juice, honey, hops, wine; used in frozen dairy products.
417. NEROLI BIGARDE OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in oranges; used in baked goods, candy.
418. NEROLIDOL; FEMA GRAS
found in grapefruit, hops, lime, grapefruit oil; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
419. NONA-2-trans,6-cis-DIENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beef, beer, blue cheese, cheddar cheese, brandy plum; used in frozen dairy goods.
420. 2,6-NONADIEN-1-OL;FEMA GRAS
found in cucumber, frozen pea, whole soybean, tomato; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, gravies.
421. gamma-NONALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, wheat bread, capers, cherry, chicken, clam; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
422. NONANAL; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, asparagus, beef, blackberry, wheat bread, cantaloupe, cocoa; used in baked goods.
423. NONANOIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, artichoke, avocado, banana, beef, beer, wheat bread; used in baked goods, candy, meat products.
424. 2-NONANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in strawberry; used in dairy products, condiments.
425. trans-2-NONEN-1-OL - FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, brandy grape, cucumber, melon, nectarine, plum, prickly pear, wine; used in baked goods.
426. 2-NONENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, carrot, cherry, cucumber, egg, endive, olives, peach, peas, tomato, watermelon; used in meat products.
427. NONYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, cantaloupe, grape, grapefruit juice, honeydew melon, milk, used in frozen dairy products.
428. NUTMEG POWDER AND OIL GRAS FEMA
GRAS found in nutmeg; used in condiments, baked goods.
429. OAK CHIPS EXTRACT AND OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in oak tree wood chips; used in baked goods.
430. OAK MOSS ABSOLUTE; FEMA GRAS
found in essential oil of lichen, oak moss; used in meat products, candy, ice cream.
431. 9,12-OCTADECADIENOIC ACID (48%) AND 9,12,15-OCTADECATRIENOIC ACID (52%); FDA GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in potato, tomato, apple, beer, cheese, country ham; used in preserves, spreads, candy, gelatin and puddings.
432. delta-OCTALACTONE - FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beef, blackberry, butter, cheese (blue, cheddar, parmesan), cranberry, cream, coconut; used in candy, margarine, baked goods.
433. gamma-OCTALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, asparagus, beef, beer, blackberry, blue cheese, brandy grape, cantaloupe, cherry, chicken, cranberry; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
434. OCTANAL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, artichoke, avocado, beef, beer, blackberry, brandy, wheat bread, butter; used in frozen dairy products, beverages, baked goods, candy.
435. OCTANOIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beef, blackberry, plum brandy, wheat butter, beer, blue cheese; used in snack foods, baked goods, candy.
436. 1-OCTANOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apricot, blueberry, cantaloupe, celery, cherry, fish, grape, mushroom, pear, peas, strawberry; used in chewing gum, beverages, ice cream, baked goods, candy.
437. 2-OCTANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beef, cheese, coffee, cocoa, milk, peanut, tea, wine; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
438. 3-OCTEN-2-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in roasted filbert, mushroom, dried pea, tea; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods, condiments, candy, dairy products.
439. 1-OCTEN-3-OL; FEMA GRAS
found in mushroom, peppermint, spearmint; used in processed vegetables.
440. 1-OCTEN-3-YL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, avocado, beef, wheat bread, cabbage, capers, caviar, butter; used in snack foods.
441. 2-OCTENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, beer, banana, beans, blue cheese, butter, cantaloupe, capers, chicken; used in snack foods, baked goods, diary products.
442. OCTYL ISOBUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in hops, plum; used in baked goods, beverages, ice cream, candy.
443. OLEIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, grape, ginger, potato, strawberry, tomato; used in condiment relish, citrus fruit, yeast, sugar beets.
444. OLIBANUM OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in gum resin exudate; used in Non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
445. OPOPONAX OIL AND GUM
found in opoponax, opoponas; natural flavor; used in alcoholic beverages.
446. ORANGE BLOSSOMS WATER, ABSOLUTE AND LEAF ABSOLUTE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in oranges; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
447. ORANGE OIL AND EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in oranges; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, condiments, candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
448. ORIGANUM OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in origanum flowers; used in soups.
449. ORRIS CONCRETE OIL AND ROOT EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in orris roots; used in gelatin pudding, alcoholic beverages.
450. PALMAROSA OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in geranium; used in baked goods.
451. PALMITIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
found in apple, beer, celery, cheddar cheese, milk, potato, tomato; used in meat products, baked goods.
452. PARSLEY SEED OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in parsley; used in soups.
453. PATCHOULI OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in dried leaves of Pogostemon cablin Benth.; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy, chewing gum.
454. omega-PENTADECALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods; ice cream, candy.
455. 2,3-PENTANEDIONE; FEMA GRAS
found in nuts, beef, beer, bread, chicken, cocoa, coffee, tomato, yogurt; used in baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
456. 2-PENTANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, banana, beef, cheese, chicken, grape, ham, honey, peanut; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
457. 4-PENTENOIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
used in soft candy, beverages, baked goods, margarine.
458. 2-PENTYLPYRIDINE - FEMA GRAS
found in cooked meat, peppers, hazel nut, roasted peanuts; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
459. PEPPER OIL, BLACK AND WHITE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in pepper corns; used in condiments, ice cream, baked goods.
460. PEPPERMINT OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint; used in chewing gum, meat products, ice cream, baked goods.
461. PERUVIAN (BOIS DE ROSE) OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, chewing gum.
462. PETITGRAIN ABSOLUTE, MANDARIN OIL AND TERPENELESS OIL; FDA GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in bitter orange tree, leaves, and twigs, oranges; used in baked goods, condiments, candy.
463. alpha-PHELLANDRENE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, gin, hops, mango, nectarine, papaya, paprika, parsley, beans, carrots; used in milk products, baked goods, candy.
464. 2-PHENETHYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, banana, beer, brandy, raspberry, wheat bread, butter, cantaloupe; used in candy, ice cream, baked goods.
465. PHENETHYL ALCOHOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple juice, banana, beef, beer, blackberry, blueberry, apple, apricot, asparagus; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
466. PHENETHYL BUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, banana, apple brandy, grape, strawberry, wine; used in baked goods, candy, ice cream.
467. PHENETHYL CINNAMATE - FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
468. PHENETHYL ISOBUTYRATE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, brandy, grape, olive, rum; used in chewing gum, baked goods, candy.
469. PHENETHYL ISOVALERATE; FEMA GRAS
found in peppermint, spearmint, banana, beer, brandy, grape; used in chewing gum, candy, frozen dairy products.
470. PHENETHYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, cheese.
471. PHENETHYL SALICYLATE; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy, baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings.
472. 1-PHENYL-1-PROPANOL; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, chicken broth, grape brandy, cocoa, guava, honey, lamb/mutton, mushroom; used in chewing gum, candy, baked goods.
473. 3-PHENYL-1-PROPANOL; FEMA GRAS
found in cinnamon, honey, tea; used in frozen dairy, baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
474. 2-PHENYL-2-BUTENAL - FEMA GRAS
found in beer, chicken, tomato, almonds, asparagus, cocoa, tea, hazelnuts; used in gelatin and puddings, candy, ice cream.
475. 4-PHENYL-3-BUTEN-2-OL; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy, baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings.
476. 4-PHENYL-3-BUTEN-2-ONE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, grape brandy, grape, guava, licorice, mango, nushroom, papaya, raspberry, strawberry, whiskey, wine; used in baked goods, candy.
477. PHENYLACETALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in chicken, strawberry; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
478. PHENYLACETIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in almond, asparagus, cocoa, coffee, mushroom, peanut, pork, potato chips, sesame seed, tea; used in sweet sauce, baked goods, candy.
479. l-PHENYLALANINE; FEMA GRAS
found in meats, eggs, breads, cereals, milk, cheese, fish, corn, beans, potatoes, asparagus, peas; used in frozen dairy, baked goods, candy, condiments, meat products.
480. 3-PHENYLPROPIONALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, chicken, tomato; used in baked goods, candy, condiments.
481. 3-PHENYLPROPIONIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in beef, beer, blue cheese, grape brandy, wheat bread, broccoli, apricot, artichoke, asparagus, banana, beans; used in baked goods, candy.
482. 3-PHENYLPROPYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods, candy, chewing gum, condiments.
483. 3-PHENYLPROPYL CINNAMATE; FEMA GRAS
found in American storax, Peru balsam; used in non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
484. 2-(3-PHENYLPROPYL)TETRAHYDROFURAN; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, chewing gum.
485. PHOSPHORIC ACID - FEMA GRAS
component of living organisms; used in cheese, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, meat products.
486. PIMENTA LEAF OIL
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, condiments, chewing gum, meat products.
487. PINE NEEDLE OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in pine tree needles; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
488. PINE OIL, SCOTCH; FEMA GRAS
found in pine trees; used in candy, baked goods, non-alcoholic beverages.
489. PINEAPPLE JUICE CONCENTRATE
Found in pineapple; defined as a fruit juice under FDA Standards of Identity.
490. alpha-PINENE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, blueberry, plum brandy, carrots, celery, cheddar cheese, chicken; used in condiments, candy, meat products.
491. beta-PINENE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, plum brandy, butter, cantaloupe, carrots, celery, cheddar cheese, cocoa, cranberry; used in baked goods, candy, meat products.
492. D-PIPERITONE; FEMA GRAS
found in blackberry, celery, raspberry; used in soft candy, baked goods, dairy products.
493. PIPERONAL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cantaloupe, capers, melon, sherry; used in candy, baked goods.
494. PIPSISSEWA LEAF EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, candy.
495. PLUM JUICE
Found in plum.
496. POTASSIUM SORBATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in mountain ash berries; used in cheese.
497. l-PROLINE; FEMA GRAS
essential amino acid, found in proteins, plants and animals; used in breakfast cereals, baked goods.
498. PROPENYLGUAETHOL; FEMA GRAS
used in sweet sauce, baked goods, candy.
499. PROPIONIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, beef, beer, blueberry juice, bread, cheese, coffee, grape juice, maple syrup, orange juice, raspberry, rum; used in fruit, candy, gelatin and puddings, dairy products.
500. PROPYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in banana, grape, apple juice, beer, wheat bread, cantaloupe, capers, cocoa, guava, honey, fig, honeydew melon, heated corn oil; used in beverages, ice cream, baked goods.
501. PROPYL para-HYDROXYBENZOATE; FEMA GRAS
found in licorice; used in processed vegetables.
502. PROPYLENE GLYCOL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in sesame seed, mushroom ; used in confection frostings, cheese, candy.
503. 3-PROPYLIDENEPHTHALIDE; FEMA GRAS
found in lovage; used in frozen dairy products, baked goods, candy.
504. PRUNE JUICE AND CONCENTRATE
Common food item.
505. PYRIDINE; FEMA GRAS
found in bean, bread, cheese, cocoa, coffee, fish, onion, peanut and pecan, popcorn, potato, rum, tea, tomato; used in ice cream, baked goods, condiments, meat products.
506. PYROLIGNEOUS ACID AND EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in Birch tree; used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meat products.
507. PYRROLE - FEMA GRAS
found in wheat bread, beer, beef, chicken, steamed clams, cocoa, coffee; used in meat products, candy, baked goods.
508. PYRUVIC ACID; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, wheat bread, celery, asparagus, milk, onion, Sake; used in frozen dairy, products, baked goods, candy.
509. RAISIN JUICE CONCENTRATE
common food item; found in raisin; used in baked goods.
510. RHODINOL; FEMA GRAS
found in geranium flowers; used in chewing gum, baked goods, ice cream.
511. ROSE ABSOLUTE AND OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in roses; used in chewing gum, ice cream, baked goods.
512. ROSEMARY OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in rosemary; used in condiments, meat products, baked goods.
513. RUM.
Alcoholic beverages; natural flavor.
514. RUM ETHER; FEMA GRAS
found in rum; used in non-alcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy, baked goods, candy.
515. RYE EXTRACT
found in rye; common food item.
516. SAGE, SAGE OIL, AND SAGE OLEORESIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in sage; used in baked goods, condiments, meat products.
517. SALICYLALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in beer, butter, chicken, coffee, cranberry, grape, potato, rum, sherry, tea, tomato, whiskey; used in baked goods, condiments, candy.
518. SANDALWOOD OIL, YELLOW; FEMA GRAS
found in sandalwood; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
519. SCLAREOLIDE - FEMA GRAS
found in clary sage; used in milk products, baked goods, candy, meat products, breakfast cereals.
520. SKATOLE; FEMA GRAS
found in cheese, egg, fish, tea; used in frozen dairy, soft candy, gelatin and puddings, baked goods.
521. SMOKE FLAVOR
Found in hickory-wood smoke distillate; used in baked goods, cheese, meats.
522. SNAKEROOT OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in wild ginger; used in beverages, ice cream, candy, condiments.
523. SODIUM ACETATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in plant and animal tissues; used in cereals, pastas, snack foods, candy, meat products, soups.
524. SODIUM BENZOATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, margarine, dietary supplmements.
525. SODIUM BICARBONATE GRAS
natural mineral; main component of baking powder and baking soda.
526. SODIUM CARBONATE GRAS
used in baked goods, desserts, maragarine, poultry.
527. SODIUM CHLORIDE GRAS
used in brewing, baked goods, butter, cheese, poultry.
528. SODIUM CITRATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
used in evaporated milk, general purpose food additive.
529. SODIUM HYDROXIDE GRAS
Used in meat and poultry, oleo and margarine.
530. SOLANONE
Found in black currant buds.
531. SPEARMINT OIL GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in spearmint; used in chewing gum, ice cream, candy, baked goods.
532. STYRAX EXTRACT, GUM AND OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in storax; used in baked goods, candy, jellies.
533. SUCROSE OCTAACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in ginger ale; used in candy, gelatin and puddings, baked goods.
534. SUGAR ALCOHOLS GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in cherry, plum, apple; used in soft candy. Maltitol is a sugar permitted by FDA for use in chewing gum, diabetic chocolate and whipped non-dairy topping.
535. SUGARS GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in food sugar sources; used in baked goods, candy, breakfast cereals.
536. TAGETES OIL; FEMA GRAS
found in marigold flowers; used in condiment relish.
537. TANNIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in bark of many fruits and plants; used in baked goods, gelatins, puddings and fillings, frozen dairy desserts, candy, meat products.
538. TARTARIC ACID GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in wine grapes; used in fruit juices, baked goods, ice cream.
539. TEA LEAF AND ABSOLUTE GRAS
natural flavor extractive.
540. alpha-TERPINEOL; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, applie juice, apricot, artichoke, beans, beef, beli, bilberry, blueberry, plum brandy; used in chewing gum, baked goods, ice cream.
541. TERPINOLENE; FEMA GRAS
found in thyme, valencia oranges; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
542. TERPINYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beer, blackberry, carrots, celery, cranberry, gin, ginger; used in meat products, baked goods, candy.
543. 5,6,7,8-TETRAHYDROQUINOXALINE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, wheat bread, cocoa, peanut, pork; used in candy, baked goods, dairy products.
544. 1,5,5,9-TETRAMETHYL-13-OXATRICYCLO(8.3.0.0(4,9))TRIDECANE - FEMA GRAS
found in clary sage oil; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings.
545. 2,3,4,5 AND 3,4,5,6-TETRAMETHYLETHYL-CYCLOHEXANONE; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
546. 2,3,5,6-TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in wheat bread, Sake, shrimp, beef, beer, coffee, peanut; used in baked goods, dairy products, candy.
547. THIAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in rice husk, cereal grains, yeast, liver, eggs; nutrient supplement in food.
548. THIAZOLE - FEMA GRAS
found in Coffee aroma, component of the structure of vitamin B1 (Thiamine) which occurs in seeds, meat and milk.
549. l-THREONINE
found in eggs, skim milk, nuts, oranges and lemons.
550. THYME OIL, WHITE AND RED GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in thyme; used in condiments, meats, soups, baked goods.
551. THYMOL; FEMA GRAS
found in blueberry, romano sheese, papaya, peppermint, pistacia, fruit tea, wine; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
552. TOBACCO EXTRACTS
Natural to tobacco; used as flavorants at minimal levels, producing no measurable increase in nicotine in cigarettes.
553. TOCHOPHEROLS (MIXED) GRAS
found in spinach, soybeans, cashews; used in pump-cured bacon.
554. TOLU BALSAM GUM AND EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in balsam tolu; used in baked goods, candy, syrups.
555. TOLUALDEHYDES (ortho,meta,para); FEMA GRAS
found in beef, beer, butter, coffee, endive, rum, tea; used in chewing gum; baked goods, ice cream.
556. para-TOLYL 3-METHYLBUTYRATE - FEMA GRAS
found in raspberry, coffee, tea, rum; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
557. para-TOLYL ACETALDEHYDE - FEMA GRAS
used in ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods.
558. para-TOLYL ACETATE; FEMA GRAS
found in cananga, Ylang Ylang; used in candy, ice cream, baked goods.
559. para-TOLYL ISOBUTYRATE approved food addtitive; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
560. para-TOLYL PHENYLACETATE; FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, candy, cheese, ice cream.
561. TRIACETIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in papaya; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
562. 2-TRIDECANONE - FEMA GRAS
found in cheese, coffee, coconut oil, hops; used in ice cream, ices, baked goods, candy.
563. 2-TRIDECENAL; FEMA GRAS
found in sunguli oil; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
564. TRIETHYL CITRATE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in red currant; used in chewing gum, baked goods, ice cream.
565. 3,5,5-TRIMETHYL-1-HEXANOL - FEMA GRAS
used in baked goods, condiments, pickles.
566. para,alpha,alpha-TRIMETHYLBENZYL ALCOHOL - FEMA GRAS
found in apricots, blackberry. grape brandy, grapefruit juice, honey, peppermint, pineapple, plum, tomato; used in beverages, candy, gelatins and puddings.
567. 4-(2,6,6-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-1-ENYL)BUT-2-EN-4-ONE - FEMA GRAS
found in rose, rum, brandy, tea; used in baked goods, candy, chewing gum.
568. 2,6,6-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEX-2-ENE-1,4-DIONE - FEMA GRAS
found in apricot, beer, blackberry, grape, hops, kiwifruit; used in soft candy.
569. 2,6,6-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXA-1,3-DIENYL METHAN; FEMA GRAS
used in candy, baked goods, condiments, pickles, preserves and spreads.
570. 4-(2,6,6-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXA-1,3-DIENYL)BUT-2-EN-4-ONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apples, black tea, Riesling wine; used in beverages, frozen dessert, baked goods, candy, gelatin and puddings, preserves, condiments.
571. 2,2,6-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANONE - FEMA GRAS
found in bilberry, passion fruit, tea; used in Non-alcoholic beverages, frozen dessert, confectionery, ice cream, ices, candy.
572. 2,3,5-TRIMETHYLPYRAZINE - FEMA GRAS
found in barley, almond, asparagus, beef, wheat bread, chicken, cocoa, coffee; used in baked goods, candy, dairy products, cereals.
573. l-TYROSINE; FEMA GRAS
found in nuts, oranges and lemons.
574. delta-UNDECALACTONE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, butter, coconut, milk; used in baked goods, candy, dairy products, cereals.
575. gamma-UNDECALACTONE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, apricot, heated butter, peach, plum, pork, rice; used in chewing gum, candy, ice cream, baked goods.
576. UNDECANAL; FEMA GRAS
found in mandarin, grapefruit and lemon; used in baked goods, chewing gum.
577. 2-UNDECANONE; FEMA GRAS
found in coconut oil, banana, beer, beef, cheese, cocoa, coffee, wine, milk, mushroom, peanut, strawberry; used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, baked goods, candy, dairy products.
578. 10-UNDECENAL; FEMA GRAS
used in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, ices, candy.
579. UREA GRAS
found in mushrooms; used in baked goods.
580. VALENCENE - FEMA GRAS
found in grapefruit juice, mango, mangosteen, orange juice, cocoa; used in breakfast cereals, candy, baked goods.
581. VALERALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in apple, apple juice, apricot, artichoke, asparagus, avocado, banana, beef, blue cheese; used in candy, baked goods, ice cream.
582. VALERIAN ROOT EXTRACT, OIL AND POWDER; FEMA GRAS
found in valerian root; used in baked goods, chewing gum.
583. VALERIC ACID; FEMA GRAS

found in banana, beef, beer, blue cheese, blueberry, wheat bread, butter; used in imitation dairy goods.
584. gamma-VALEROLACTONE - FEMA GRAS
found in beef, beer, cocoa, coffee, mushroom, peach, peanut, wheat bread, heated butter, honey; used in candy, meat products, baked goods.
585. VALINE; FEMA GRAS
found in plants, lemons, oranges, grapefruits; used in ice cream, candy, baked goods.
586. VANILLA EXTRACT AND OLEORESIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in vanilla bean; used in baked goods, gelatin and puddings, condiments.
587. VANILLIN GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in asparagus, barley, beer, brandy, blackberry, blueberry, coffee, cranberry; used in confection frosting, baked goods, candy.
588. VERATRALDEHYDE; FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, raspberry; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
589. VETIVER OIL
found in vetiver flowers.
590. VINEGAR
Derived from fermentable sugars such as fruit juices and honey; used in catsup, mayonnaise, pickles.
591. VIOLET LEAF ABSOLUTE GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in violets; used in baked goods, ice cream, candy.
592. WALNUT HULL EXTRACT; FEMA GRAS
found in walnuts; used in breakfast cereals, ice cream, candy.
593. WATER.
594. WHEAT EXTRACT AND FLOUR
common food component.
595. WILD CHERRY BARK EXTRACT GRAS FEMA GRAS
found in Cherry trees; used in alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, candy, ice cream.
596. WINE AND WINE SHERRY
common beverages, found in grape fermentation/distillation.
597. XANTHAN GUM
produced by carbohydrate fermentation; used in baked goods, beverages, fish, milk, products, poultry.
598. 3,4-XYLENOL - FEMA GRAS
found in coffee, wood vinegar; used in baked goods, meat, soups, coffee, nuts.
599. YEAST.


(Source: Brown and Williamson, 1994)    
                                            
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