and effect are often confused, Warda, even by native
speakers of English. The most important thing to remember is that
affect is used as a verb and effect is normally used
as a noun. When they are used in this way, they are similar in meaning,
signifying ‘influence’, ‘impact’ or ‘change’. Compare the following:
'The really hot weather affected everybody’s ability
'I know my neighbours play loud music late at night, but that
doesn’t affect me.I can sleep through anything.'
'The number of tourists travelling to Britain this year has
not been affected by the strength of the pound.'
'The tablets which he took every four hours had no noticeable
effect on his headache.'
'My words of comfort had little effect. She just went
on crying and wouldn’t stop.'
Note: we talk about someone or something having an effect on
something or someone. If we use effect as a verb, it means
to ‘carry out’ or to ‘cause something to happen’, but it is used only
in very formal English. Consider the following:
'Repairs could not be effected because the machines were very
two qualitative adjectives are often confused, Kisy. If somebody
or something is efficient, then he, she or it works in a
well-organised way, without wasting time or energy. Consider the
'She was efficient in everything she did and was frequently
commended for exemplary service to the organisation.'
'He hasn’t made very efficient use of his time in revising
for these exams: he has made no notes and his concentration spans
appear to last for no longer than ten minutes.'
'This engine is really efficient, it can run for 30
km on only 1 litre of fuel.'
If something is effective, it works well and produces the results
that were intended. Consider the following examples:
'These tablets really are effective. My headache’s much
'The only effective way to avoid hay fever at this time
of the year, if you are a sufferer, is to stay indoors.'