are linking adverbs - please give me some examples - and
are they also called conjunctive adverbs?
Ling from China writes:
having difficulty distinguishing some linking devices like however,
nevertheless, whereas, etc. Would you please explain
to me how to use those terms correctly?
adverbs are adverbs that are used to link ideas or clauses in
spoken discourse or written text. They could also be called conjunctive
adverbs in so far as they perform the same sort of function as conjunctions.
use a very wide variety of linking adverbs. Some are more commonly
used in formal written English, whilst others are more characteristic
of informal, spoken language. Here are some of the most common.
/ but still
and but still are used to link contrasting ideas together.
But still is very informal, yet is semi-formal. In
the examples below, note how different meaning and usage is when
they are employed as adverbs, adding information to the verb, and
as linking adverbs, contrasting ideas:
you finished that work yet? Come on. Get a move
have yet / still to see an English orchid as beautiful
as those in the rain forests of Brazil.
cautioned him three times already for arriving late for work.
But he still turned up ten minutes late again this
He claims he is a vegetarian, (and) yet he eats everything
my mother puts in front of him.
that yet as a linking adverb can only be placed in
front position in the clause. Still can be placed
before or immediately after the subject: but he still / but
still he .
well / too
well and too are linking adverbs, meaning also
or in addition, which would be a more formal equivalent.
Again, note the difference in meaning and usage when they are employed
as adverbs modifying the adjective or adding information to the
verb, and as linking adverbs, meaning in addition:
T-shirt is too small for me. I need a larger size.
I certainly can't play the piano as well as she
does. Katerina is good enough to be a concert pianist. I play
quite well, but not as well.
birthday's on the sixth of June. ~ That's funny. My birthday's
on the sixth of June too / as well.
all going to Cornwall for our holidays this year. Oh, and Jeremy's
coming as well / too.
that too and as well as linking adverbs are
normally placed in end position in the clause, although in
a more formal style too can be placed immediately after the
like Beethoven. I too am fond of Beethoven's music.
linking adverbs, however and nevertheless are
used to emphasize a contrast with what has been said or written
before which may appear surprising to the listener or reader:
is clear that prices have been rising steadily throughout this
year. It is, however, unlikely that they will continue
to rise as quickly next year.
would be the first to admit that prices have risen sharply this
year. Nevertheless, they are unlikely to rise as sharply
politician was confident of success. His advisers were not so
always remains cheerful. But his life has been beset by constant
that however and nevertheless reflect more formal
usage and that both can come in front, mid or end position
in the clause.
and while are both conjunctions which we use as linking devices
to balance ideas or contrasting points in a more formal style
of English. As conjunctions they can only come at front position
in the clause
rains quite a lot in England in the summer months whereas rain
in Spain in the summer is a rare occurrence.
While I don't mind you having the occasional glass of wine,
drinking too much is not in order.
less formal equivalent which might be used in more informal
contexts would be the connecting phrase: on the other hand.
we should spend the whole week under canvas. On the other hand,
it may rain a lot and then we could return home earlier.
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