explain to me how and when we have to use have + to + verb
(have to learn, having to finish, etc) and to + have + past participle
(to have finished, to have sent, to have gone, etc).
have done something
This is the infinitive form of the present perfect tense.
Remember, we use the present perfect to describe something which
has been (recently) completed and still has a bearing on present
and/or future circumstances. Compare the following:
I have recently returned from India. To have seen the Taj
Mahal in the early morning sunlight will always be something I
shall never forget.
You went to Aberdeen last week, didn't you? ~ Yes, I did.
~ To have gone all the way to Aberdeen and yet not to have called
on your mother-in-law is something I cannot understand.
So, do you have any money left at all now? ~ No, I don't.
~ To have lost all your money betting on horses is irresponsible
to say the least when you have a family to look after.
Using an infinitive clause as the subject of the sentence in this
way is a little unusual in an informal style. It is the sort of
statement you would make having reflected on something of importance
To have something done
Take care not to confuse to have done something with to
have something done. This structure (have + object + past
participle) is used to talk about arranging for other people
to do things for us and has the same sort of meaning as a passive
sentence. Compare the following:
We had this piece of furniture made specially so that
it fits into the corner. It was made by John Lawrence,
the antique furniture restorer.
Why did you take your car to the garage? ~ To have it
serviced. ~ When my car needs to be serviced, I just
hand it over to Michael.
Note that in informal English, we sometimes talk about getting
things done, rather than having them done:
I must get my watch repaired. It's so inconvenient
being without one.
When are you going to get your hair cut? ~ I'm not going
to get it cut. I'm going to let it grow.
to / had to / having to
Like must, have to expresses obligation. Sometimes it doesn't
matter which one we use, but the main difference is that must
expresses personal feelings and have to expresses
obligation which is imposed. Compare the following:
Is it really as late as that? I must go now / I have
to go now.
I really must phone my mum tonight. I haven't spoken
to her for ages.
I know you don't want to, but you'll have to speak
to him. He's waiting for your call.
I'm sorry I'm late. I had to finish some work before
I could leave. (Notice there is no past or participial form
Having to finish your homework before you're allowed to watch
television is not fair.
have got to
Note that we sometimes use have got to in present tense
form as an alternative to have to. Although have got to
often expresses future obligation, there is no future form of this
verb. It is not used to express past obligation either. For future
and past tense forms, we have to use have to. Compare the
Can't you come to Brighton with me on Saturday? ~ No, I've
got to work on Saturday. ~ You had to work last Saturday
too. Will you have to work the following Saturday as well?
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