and every are both determiners used with singular nouns to
indicate quantity. Each indicates two or more objects or
people and every indicates three or more. Each can
also be used as a pronoun, but every cannot be. Study the
had clearly been in a fight. She had bruises on each leg
and cuts on each arm (OR: on both legs / on both arms,
BUT NOT: on every leg / on every arm)
parents have moved to the capital. Each of them works in
a bank. (OR They both work…, / They each work…, BUT NOT: Every
one of them works…
each had a suitcase and each one weighed over 30 kilos.
( = two people, two suitcases)
was holding a revolver in each hand / in both hands
( = two hands, two revolvers)
was holding a revolver with both hands ( = two hands, one revolver)
~ individual; every ~ all
tend to use each if we are thinking about members of a group
individually, and every if we are thinking of them in total.
Compare the following:
gave each child who came to the party a present. We handed
them out one by one.
We gave every child who came to the party a present We
gave them all a present.
really love Pinter. I've seen every one of his plays at
least once. I've seen them all.
suggested I should read Pinter's plays. Well, I'm going to study
each one carefully.
third-year student will be examined orally in June. They will
each be given a fifteen minute interview.
adverbs - almost, nearly, practically, etc,
we have to use every to emphasise that we are talking about
the group as a whole:
Practicallyevery person in the room had dated Samantha at some time
Nearlyevery chocolate had been eaten. There were hardly any left
for the boys when they arrived home.
year I have visited practically every country in South-East
have to use every to refer to repeated regular events, as
in onceevery, twice every, etc. Study the
hearing is getting worse and worse and I have to go to the hospital
for a hearing test once every so often - about once every
ask me every single day when Joan will be returning and
every single day I tell you that I do not know.
often do you hear from John? ~ Oh, not very often. Every
now and again.
was suffering from cramp and in order to finish the tennis match
needed to stretch her legs after every othergame.
(I.e. after the 2nd, 4th, 6th games, etc) BUT: She was suffering
from cramp and in order to finish the tennis match needed to stretch
her legs after each game.
only each can be used as a pronoun, irrespective of whether
we are describing two or more of something or three or more of something.
Study the following:
no. It's not £30 for both of them. They each cost £30.
(OR: They cost £30 each.)
inheritance was shared out equally among the six children.
Each (of them) received £32,000.
gave them each (OR each of them) a $10 tip when I checked
out of the hotel.
we want to use every in a similar way, indicating three or
more of something, we must insert one before of them as every
has no pronominal form itself. A lot of word stress is put on one
so that in effect it means every single one of them. We can
use each one of them in a similar way. Study the following
and the earlier examples of this structure:
inheritance was shared out equally among the six children. Every
one of them received £32,000.
gave every one of them a $10 tip when I checked out of