One Party States
RISE AND FALL
soon after independence, multiparty democracy gave way to the one party state
or military rule. The problem with multiparty democracy was that it had led
to the formation of many parties, each with a regional outlook, and none
representing the interests of the country as a whole. The rise of the one party
state was also influenced by the Soviet model, which declared the people and
the party as one.
the 1970's, the first self proclaimed Marxist Leninist leaders took charge in
Africa, setting up one-party systems.
In 1974, the Emperor Haile Selassie of
Ethiopia was deposed in a revolution. He was eventually replaced by Mengistu Haile Mariam
who initiated a purge of all opponents. In response Somalia under Siad Barre
switched from being pro-Soviet to pro-western. It was the only country in Africa
to do this under the same government.
collapse of Communism in the Eastern bloc in 1989 signalled a revival of multiparty
democracy. Rulers found themselves under pressure: firstly from the people,
disenchanted with the track record of single party rule, and secondly, from
the IMF and the World Bank, which made it a precondition of further loans and