Dyma and Dyna and Dacw are three important words that are commonly used in conversation.
Dyma can mean 'this is' or 'here is'
Dyma'r dyn - here's the man or this is the man
Dyma fe - here he is or here it is
Dyna can mean 'there'or 'that's'
Dyna'r broblem - that's the problem Dyna'r pwynt - that's the point Dyna ti - that's it Dyna ddigon - that's enough
Very often in conversation this is abbreviated to 'Na 'Na fe - that's it 'Na ni - there we are
Note that when we refer to something in the distance we use Dacw
Dacw hi - there she is (over there) Dacw'r car - that's the car (over there)
In south Wales you will often hear 'co 'co fe - there he is'co'r bachgen - there's the boy
Don't forget the other use of Dyma and Dyna when someone is talking about a dramatic event in the past. For example - roeddwn i'n croesi'r stryd a dyma ddyn yn rhedeg allan o'r banc gyda mwgwd dros ei ben.
I was crossing the road and a man with a mask over his head ran out of the bank.
Ar fy mhen fy hun
Jenny refers to the time she spent away in a hotel in Tenby and said that she went there Ar fy mhen fy hun - ar fy mhen fy hun, meaning 'on my own'Dic replies - Ar dy ben dy hun - on your ownMake a note of the mutations in the following forms:
Ar fy mhen fy hun - on my own Ar dy ben dy hun - on your own Ar ei ben ei hun - on his own Ar ei phen ei hun - on her own Ar ein pennau ein hunain - on our own Ar eich pennau eich hunain - on your own Ar eu pennau eu hunain - on their own
Note that in south Wales, you might hear wrth fy hunan, also meaning on my own.
There are several forms that you might hear when someone is apologising in Welsh.
Mae'n ddrwg gen i
Mae'n ddrwg gen i Mae'n ddrwg 'da fi in south Wales Mae'n flin 'da fi also in south Wales
However in everyday speech there is a tendency to use the word 'sori'