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29 October 2014
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Elizabeth l allegedly spoke nine different languages, including Welsh, and did a number of translations.

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Urdu today
The history of Urdu
Names and writing system

More about Urdu

The writing system
Urdu and Hindi also have separate scripts.

Urdu writing

Urdu is written right to left in the Nastaliq script, which differs in small but important respects from the Naskh script used for Arabic. It is a consonantal system in which vowels are indicated by marks above and below the letters. Letters also change according to their position - initial, medial, final or isolated - in the word.

A high value is attached to calligraphic skills.

Hindi writing

Hindi is written in the Devanagari script. It runs from left to right with an almost continuous horizontal line running along the top.

Urdu names
Males have a personal name (e.g. Akram, Aziz, Arif) which can come first or second and is used only by family and friends; and a religious name (e.g. Mohammed, Abdul) which can come first or second but is never used alone. The two names together (e.g. Mohammed Arif) form a 'calling name' which is used by acquaintances. Some men also use a hereditary name, (e.g. Qureshi, Chowdrey), or a male title (e.g. Khan).Women have a personal name which always comes first and a second name which is either a female title (e.g. Bano, Begum, Bi, Bibi) or another personal name. Girls and boys usually take their father's personal name as a family name; married women usually take their husband's personal name.Hindi speakers will use Hindu names. The family priest consults an almanac to suggest syllables that can be used in the baby's name. Then, in a ceremony that usually takes place on the twelfth day following the birth, the father whispers the chosen name in the baby's ear.Children can be given one or two personal names; in the case of two, the first name is usually the one used. The family name is shared by all members of the family and usually indicates the sub-caste.
Personal nameFamily name


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