“I felt like I've had something to prove after missing out on the Olympics, so I was very determined”
GB's Daniel Keatings made up for missing London 2012 through injury with victory on the pommel horse.
Whitlock, 20, was part of the GB men's side that won their first team medal in 100 years at London 2012 and, after winning silver in the all-around final on Friday, he completed his set of European honours with bronze in the pommel horse final.
He had to settle for sharing floor gold because although his routine difficulty was higher, Shatilov's execution received better scores.
"I didn't even know, 100% [that he was the first British male to win gold on the floor], but that's an amazing achievement," he added.
"I'm also so proud with bronze on the pommel, it's been an incredible event. After the Olympics I really wanted to step it up across all of the apparatus and it's happening, which is just brilliant."
Keatings, who won the European pommel horse title in 2010, scored 15.6 to push Olympic champion Krisztian Berki (15.533) into second.
"That means everything to me," the 23-year-old told BBC Sport.
"I felt like I've had something to prove after missing out on the Olympics, so I was very determined."
Keatings, the all-around silver medallist at the 2009 World Championships, added: "I knew I'd done the best routine I could have done and was in with a shout, so the cheer on landing was more relief than [anything] and beating the Olympic champion - it's fantastic."
The British women did not enjoy quite the same level of success as the men on day four of the European Championships.
GB's Dan Keatings win European gymnastics pommel horse gold
Despite qualifying with the second-highest score for the uneven bars final, Beijing Olympian
- who was chasing her first major individual honour since claiming bronze at the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games - fell during her routine and placed seventh.
"I'm not going to lie, I've waited a long time for this moment and it didn't quite come off, so I've got to go off and pick myself up again," she said.
"To know I did so well in qualification is positive, but it is a big disappointment not to repeat that in the final - I have to try and get ready for the future now."
who was a surprise eighth in Friday's all-around final, also slipped from the bars during her performance and finished last in eighth position.
The 16-year-old will return for the beam final on Sunday, while Britain's Sam Oldham and Ashley Watson will compete for medals in the high bar.
This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.