Rodgers told LFC TV: "The punishment is against the man, rather than the incident.
"We have a punishment with no intention of helping [his] rehabilitation."
Liverpool have until 12:00 BST on Friday to appeal, but will be without Suarez until late September if the FA upholds its verdict.
Controversial Luis Suarez
December 2011 -
Given eight-match suspension and fined £40,000 for racially abusing Manchester United's Patrice Evra.
- Refuses to shake hands with Evra at Old Trafford and is described as a "disgrace" by Sir Alex Ferguson.
- Accused of diving by Stoke manager Tony Pulis.
November 2012 -
Accused of stamping on Dave Jones by Wigan manager Roberto Martinez.
January 2013 -
Mansfield chief executive Carolyn Radford says Suarez "stole" their FA Cup tie when he scored after using his hand.
- Banned for 10 games after biting Chelsea's Branislav Ivanovic.
The Reds received the written reasons for the ban from the FA's independent regulatory commission on Thursday evening and are now considering their response.
Rodgers, whose side travel to Newcastle United on Saturday, also said:
Liverpool were "shocked" and "bitterly disappointed" by the severity of the ban.
Suarez was very visibly disappointed.
The Uruguayan remains very much part of the Liverpool "family" and the club's "future".
No-one could have complained if the punishment had been a six-game ban with a further six suspended.
to 29-year-old Serbia defender Ivanovic and was fined by Liverpool on Monday.
"We are shocked and bitterly disappointed," said Rodgers. "It is the severity of the ban which has hurt most. That is something we are bitterly disappointed with.
"I can only compare [it] with similar incidents we have had. We have had two incidents of this type of scenario, both in 2006."
Appearing to refer to the FA's decision not to charge Tottenham's Jermain Defoe for
Javier Mascherano, then of West Ham, Rodgers said: "One player received no ban and continued to be chosen by the FA as part of the England squad.
"The second player
[Chester defender Sean Hessey]
received a five-game ban. As you can imagine whenever Luis Suarez receives a 10-match ban it is very difficult for us to understand and even more so for him.
"If I had more players of a similar mentality we would be in a different position. He has not let me down one bit.
Robbie SavageBBC football analyst
"If you are looking at the incident in isolation then I think 10 games would be fair but when you look at other punishments handed out by the FA then it seems harsh.
"If what he did is a 10-match ban then any incident of racism should be a 20-match ban.
"Is this a 10-match ban because it is Luis Suarez?"
"The standard set by the club - he fell way below that at the weekend. But it does not mean he should be thrown to the garbage, which is what has happened over the last couple of days."
It is not the first time Suarez has been charged with such an offence.
"The boy has worked tirelessly to fit in to the life in this country," said Rodgers. "He has made a mistake and has got a sanction we don't believe fits what he did.
"He loves this country and loves being here. It's arguable he won't have a better season but he has still had that scrutiny and criticism.
"It was too severe for what he's done and that will make you think. At the moment there's shock and anger but when he is a bit more reflective, a sense of reality will set in. He knows the support he will get here, from the management, from the players and the fans, and that will always make him think differently. At this moment he will feel low because of the sanction that's been put on his action.
"Having spoken a lot to him, he is visibly very disappointed. I look in his face and for the first time I can see a genuine guy who is disappointed. It will take time for him to reflect and understand why others have never been punished.
"For us it is a case of supporting him. He is still very much part of our family and very much part of our future. He is very important for us going forward in order to succeed."
When asked what length of ban he was hoping for, Rodgers replied: "I knew it was maybe going to be three games.
Is Suarez's 10-game ban too long?
"It could have been 12 with six suspended. That shows and tells the player it's unacceptable what he did and everyone knows that but you have to put the carrot in front of the player to help him improve his behaviour and help with the rehabilitation and this has only been punishment.
"There's been no thought of rehabilitation unless something dramatic comes up in the report that tells me otherwise. It's a straight 10 games."
Meanwhile, Liverpool goalkeeper Pepe Reina has called Suarez's ban "absurd and unfair".
"A 10-game ban seems absurd, it's disproportionate and excessive," Reina told Spanish radio station Cadena Cope. "It seems Luis has been treated badly. There's a lot of hypocrisy.
"It seems those who punish have taken badly to Luis. I consider myself a friend of Luis. He knows he has made a mistake, but 10 games seems to me like an absurd ban.
"Those who know him know he's a great person but sometimes, when he plays, his temper plays tricks on him."
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