West Brom were worthy of the draw but manager Steve Clarke will be unhappy at a lacklustre first-half display.
The Baggies knew they would have to be wary of a backlash from a Newcastle side
beaten by derby rivals Sunderland
last Sunday but Clarke's side went behind after eight minutes.
Yohan Cabaye slipped a pass to striker Papiss Cisse and he sent a ball in for Gouffran to glance past keeper Ben Foster, who was caught halfway between his goal-line and coming for the cross.
Steve BowerBBC Match of the Day commentator
"This was very much a game of two halves. Newcastle should have at least doubled their advantage before the break but credit to West Brom, who improved after half-time. If any team was going to get a winner you felt it would be the home team."
Midfielder Cabaye's vision and industry was key to his side's play and the French international twice went close with well-struck long-range strikes as one dipped just high and the other was saved.
Newcastle centre-back Steven Taylor was also played in on goal by a delicate Gouffran pass, only for Foster to quickly come out and smother the close-range effort.
West Brom's troubles were not helped when centre-back Jonas Olsson's back pass put Cisse in on goal, although the Swedish international's blushes were saved when the Magpies forward chipped over the bar.
The home side rarely threatened but might have had a penalty on the stroke of half-time. Referee Mike Jones awarded a free-kick for a James Perch challenge on Billy Jones, even though the offence took place just inside the area.
Mike Jones made the decision after consulting his assistant, with Newcastle's players arguing that Perch made contact with the ball before the Baggies right-back.
Newcastle's Premier League run-in
27 April: Liverpool (h)
4 May: West Ham (a)
12 May: QPR (a)
19 May: Arsenal (h)
The hosts were a different side after the break and a Lukaku header from Chris Brunt's corner came back off the crossbar before Newcastle eventually buckled.
Lukaku had his back to goal as he gathered a James Morrison pass, before Billy Jones pinched the ball off his toes and slid a left-foot shot past Elliot to become West Brom's first English goalscorer this season.
A Morrison header was tipped over the bar by Elliot before Newcastle's defence held firm for a point.
Newcastle manager Alan Pardew:
"We have to keep working and make sure we secure our place in this division because we will be a threat next year when we get everybody back.
"I'm very pleased [with the point] because this is a tough place to come. We wouldn't let them play in the first half and should have, perhaps, had two goals before half-time. We had the energy that we didn't last week [in the defeat by Sunderland] and it was a massive difference for us.
West Brom 1-1 Newcastle: Billy Jones goal pleases Steve Clarke
"Technically we might have been better but I couldn't fault our commitment and desire."
West Brom boss Steve Clarke:
"I was a bit concerned we had only played two games in 34 days and I think that showed at the start.
"Newcastle picked up the game much quicker than we did. In the first half they were better than us.
"On another day they could have got a second goal and it would have made it more difficult for us, but they didn't and it gave us the avenue back into the game, which I think we grabbed with both hands. Second half we were much, much better."
Substitution Dan Gosling is brought on as a substitute for Yohan Cabaye.
Unfair challenge on Chris Brunt by Moussa Sissoko results in a free kick. Free kick crossed by Chris Brunt, Jonas Gutierrez manages to make a clearance. Corner taken by Graham Dorrans from the left by-line,
90:00 +2:30 Booking
Booking The referee books Moussa Sissoko for unsporting behaviour.
Inswinging corner taken by Graham Dorrans from the left by-line, save by Rob Elliot.
Substitution Romelu Lukaku leaves the field to be replaced by Jerome Thomas.
Substitution (West Brom) makes a substitution, with Markus Rosenberg coming on for Marc-Antoine Fortune.
Shola Ameobi concedes a free kick for a foul on James Morrison. Ben Foster takes the indirect free kick.
Chris Brunt takes the inswinging corner, clearance by James Perch.
Booking Yohan Cabaye shown a yellow card.
The referee blows for offside. Rob Elliot takes the free kick.
James Morrison gives away a free kick for an unfair challenge on James Perch. Indirect free kick taken by Rob Elliot.
Romelu Lukaku delivers the ball.
Yohan Cabaye takes the outswinging corner, Shot on goal by Shola Ameobi from just inside the area goes over the target.
Chris Brunt fouled by James Perch, the ref awards a free kick. Indirect free kick taken by Ben Foster.
Substitution Hatem Ben Arfa replaces Massadio Haidara.
Massadio Haidara crosses the ball, save by Ben Foster.
The ball is sent over by Marc-Antoine Fortune.
Foul by Marc-Antoine Fortune on Massadio Haidara, free kick awarded. Rob Elliot takes the indirect free kick.
Mathieu Debuchy produces a cross, Ben Foster makes a save.
Goran Popov produces a cross.
Corner taken left-footed by Chris Brunt from the right by-line, Gareth McAuley has a headed effort at goal from close in which goes wide left of the goal.
Substitution Shola Ameobi on for Yoan Gouffran.
James Morrison takes a shot. Rob Elliot makes a save. Inswinging corner taken from the right by-line by Chris Brunt.
Yoan Gouffran takes a shot. Save by Ben Foster.
Assist on the goal came from Romelu Lukaku.
63:12 Goal scored
Goal! - Billy Jones - West Brom 1 - 1 Newcastle Billy Jones grabs a goal from inside the penalty area to the bottom right corner of the goal. West Brom 1-1 Newcastle.
Unfair challenge on Massadio Haidara by Marc-Antoine Fortune results in a free kick. Yohan Cabaye crosses the ball from the free kick right-footed from left wing.
Papiss Cisse is ruled offside. Ben Foster restarts play with the free kick.
Free kick awarded for a foul by Papiss Cisse on Graham Dorrans. Indirect free kick taken by Graham Dorrans. The referee blows for offside. Rob Elliot takes the indirect free kick.
The ball is sent over by Mathieu Debuchy. The ball is sent over by Romelu Lukaku.
Chris Brunt concedes a free kick for a foul on Yohan Cabaye. Free kick taken by Yohan Cabaye.
The ball is crossed by Gareth McAuley.
Chris Brunt takes a inswinging corner from the right by-line to the near post, Massadio Haidara manages to make a clearance. Corner taken by Chris Brunt, Jonas Gutierrez manages to make a clearance.
Corner taken by Chris Brunt, Rob Elliot makes a save. Inswinging corner taken from the left by-line by Graham Dorrans.
Chris Brunt takes the inswinging corner, Romelu Lukaku takes a shot. Jonas Olsson challenges Moussa Sissoko unfairly and gives away a free kick. Free kick taken by Rob Elliot. Jonas Gutierrez challenges Marc-Antoine Fortune unfairly and gives away a free kick. The free kick is delivered left-footed by Chris Brunt from right wing, Mapou Yanga-Mbiwa makes a clearance.
Marc-Antoine Fortune takes a shot. Save by Rob Elliot. Shane Long takes a shot. Rob Elliot makes a save. Inswinging corner taken by Chris Brunt from the right by-line played to the near post, Steven Taylor manages to make a clearance. Inswinging corner taken from the left by-line by Graham Dorrans, Header from deep inside the penalty area by Gareth McAuley goes harmlessly over the crossbar.
The match restarts for the second half.
Substitution Shane Long comes on in place of Claudio Yacob.
45:00 +3:56 Half time
Half Time The referee blows for half time.
Free kick awarded for an unfair challenge on Graham Dorrans by James Perch. Chris Brunt takes the direct free kick.
The referee gives a free kick against Steven Taylor for handball. The free kick is delivered right-footed by Graham Dorrans from left channel, clearance made by Massadio Haidara.
Foul by Massadio Haidara on Marc-Antoine Fortune, free kick awarded. Graham Dorrans takes the free kick.
Chris Brunt produces a cross.
Unfair challenge on Marc-Antoine Fortune by Massadio Haidara results in a free kick. Free kick taken by Claudio Yacob.
Mathieu Debuchy produces a right-footed shot from just outside the box that goes wide right of the target.
Marc-Antoine Fortune delivers the ball, Mapou Yanga-Mbiwa manages to make a clearance. Corner taken left-footed by Chris Brunt to the near post, James Perch manages to make a clearance. Romelu Lukaku is ruled offside. Rob Elliot takes the free kick.
Papiss Cisse produces a right-footed shot from inside the area that goes over the bar.
Effort from 20 yards by Papiss Cisse. Save by Ben Foster.
Inswinging corner taken from the right by-line by Chris Brunt, Jonas Olsson has a header from inside the six-yard box and clears the crossbar.
The referee blows for offside against Marc-Antoine Fortune. Indirect free kick taken by Rob Elliot.
Papiss Cisse takes a shot. Save by Ben Foster.
Free kick awarded for a foul by Mathieu Debuchy on Chris Brunt. Goran Popov takes the indirect free kick.
Steven Taylor takes a shot. Save by Ben Foster. Yohan Cabaye has an effort at goal from 20 yards. Ben Foster makes a save. Yohan Cabaye takes the outswinging corner, Chris Brunt makes a clearance.
Billy Jones gives away a free kick for an unfair challenge on Mapou Yanga-Mbiwa. Rob Elliot takes the free kick.
Jonas Gutierrez fouled by Romelu Lukaku, the ref awards a free kick. Rob Elliot takes the indirect free kick.
Inswinging corner taken right-footed by Graham Dorrans.
Moussa Sissoko gives away a free kick for an unfair challenge on Billy Jones. Ben Foster takes the indirect free kick.
Jonas Gutierrez fouled by Graham Dorrans, the ref awards a free kick. Rob Elliot restarts play with the free kick.
The assistant referee signals for offside against Romelu Lukaku. Indirect free kick taken by Rob Elliot.
The offside flag is raised against Romelu Lukaku. Rob Elliot takes the free kick.
Shot by Yohan Cabaye from a long way out goes over the target.
Assist by Papiss Cisse.
7:52 Goal scored
Goal! - Yoan Gouffran - West Brom 0 - 1 Newcastle Yoan Gouffran finds the net with a headed goal from inside the penalty area. West Brom 0-1 Newcastle.
The ball is sent over by Massadio Haidara, Gareth McAuley manages to make a clearance.
The ball is sent over by Mathieu Debuchy.
Unfair challenge on James Perch by Marc-Antoine Fortune results in a free kick. Rob Elliot restarts play with the free kick.
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