Derby survived a Charlton fightback to claim three points at Pride Park.
Jamie Ward opened the scoring for the Rams with a strike from outside the box before Craig Bryson doubled their advantage shortly after the restart.
The points appeared to be secure when Ward scored a penalty after he had been brought down by Danny Green.
But Green struck from long distance after 70 minutes and then set up Yann Kermorgant as the Addicks scored twice in three minutes.
However, they could not find an equaliser and Charlton have made their worst start to a campaign since their relegation from the Premier League six years ago and are now in the bottom three.
In contrast, the victory for the Rams, their second of the season in the Championship, lifts them 11 places up to ninth in the table.
But they remain uncertain at the back and have still to keep a clean sheet this season after seven league and cup fixtures.
Derby had got off to a great start when a poor defensive header dropped to Ward, who struck past Ben Hamer from 25 yards.
Conor Sammon and Ward, on two occasions, almost doubled the home team's lead before Bryson turned in Will Hughes's low cross after Charlton failed to clear.
After scoring from the spot, Ward almost completed a hat-trick but was denied by Hamer.
The home crowd were stunned by the quick-fire double but Derby held out to claim a deserved win.
Derby County 01 Fielding 02 Brayford 03 Roberts 06 Keogh 16 O'Connor (Buxton - 82' ) 04 Bryson Booked 07 Coutts 08 Hendrick 19 Hughes (Robinson - 89' ) 10 Ward 32 Sammon Substitutes 13 Legzdins 05 Buxton 21 Gjokaj 23 Freeman 12 Jacobs 11 Robinson 14 Doyle Charlton Athletic 01 Hamer 05 Morrison Booked 20 Solly 28 Cort 04 Jackson 07 Green 08 Stephens Booked 22 Hollands (Kerkar - 60' ) 23 Wilson 10 Wright-Phillips (Fuller - 60' ) 18 Kermorgant Substitutes 27 Button 03 Evina 44 Dervite 14 Pritchard 12 Kerkar 19 Fuller 34 Smith