Pattinson's five-wicket haul was only his third since making his only Test appearance for England against South Africa at Headingley in 2008
Darren Pattinson and Andre Adams shared nine wickets as Nottinghamshire dashed Lancashire's hopes of going top of the championship with victory at Southport.
Lancashire began day three on 8-0, needing 250 more to win.
But they were skittled for only 128 to lose by 129 runs as Pattinson took 5-44 and Adams 4-51, to finish with match figures of 10-122.
Defeat means Lancashire trail leaders Durham by two points, with both sides having five games to play.
Lancashire had begun brightly, with opener Stephen Moore pulling Pattinson for six, but Pattinson soon got his revenge by having the former Worcestershire batsman caught by Alex Hales at first slip.
Adams then struck twice in successive balls by bowling Paul Horton and having Mark Chilton caught behind by Chris Read, before the same pair combined to remove Steven Croft.
Karl Brown, having been dropped on one by Hales, and Tom Smith made it through to lunch at 79-4, but Brown's resistance was ended three balls into the afternoon session when Pattinson knocked back his off stump.
Smith and Gareth Cross then added 24 for the sixth wicket, but were both part of a lower-order collapse as Lancashire's last five wickets fell for 25.
Smith edged Adams to Adam Voges before Pattinson completed his first five-wicket haul of the season by removing Cross, Kyle Hogg and Glen Chapple in quick succession.
Luke Fletcher completed Nottinghamshire's first championship win in eight attempts less than five overs later when he had Simon Kerrigan caught by Graeme White at mid-off.
CLOSE OF PLAY SUMMARY
BBC Radio Lancashire's Liam Bradford:
"Lancashire came out second best in a game of cricket that has kept spectators, players and the media on their toes for the last three days. A quick 30 runs maybe gave some false hope but nothing should be taken away from the quality of both of the bowling attacks.
THE RACE FOR THE TITLE
1) Durham - P11 173pts
2) Lancashire - P11 171pts
3) Warwickshire - P10 160pts
"The difference between the two sides proved to be slightly, and only slightly, better batting from the Nottinghamshire batsmen and maybe some leaked runs after Lancashire had their opponents 27-5 on the first day.
"But there's plenty to be positive about if you support the Red Rose. Notts have to play top-of-the-table Durham twice, Lancashire take on Worcestershire twice and third-placed Warwickshire too. There's a lot of cricket left in this season, but sometimes, as Peter Moores says, you just have to take the loss."
BBC Radio Nottingham's Dave Bracegirdle:
"On the 75th birthday of Sir Garfield Sobers it was perhaps fitting that his modern day successor as Nottinghamshire's leading all-rounder should leap back to the top of the Division One wickets column.
"Andre Adams' four wickets in an 18 over spell, broken only by lunch, again steered his county to an unlikely win.
"Unlikely because before lunch on day one they had been 27-5 and in desperate straits. Adams was awesome, as was Darren Pattinson who, at last, got deserved reward for some impressive performances this season."
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