Fellow Olympic gold medallists Anthony Joshua and Luke Campbell were jointly named amateur boxer of the year.
Super-bantamweight Scott Quigg was named best young boxer of the year.
Adams wins historic boxing gold
The 29-year-old Adams, who also won her third consecutive World Championships silver in May, was also the first female to be invited to the club's awards ceremony in its 61-year history.
She said: "It is a real honour to win this award. It's been an amazing year for me and the GB Boxing team."
Super-heavyweight Joshua, 23, and bantamweight Campbell, 25, became the first two amateur boxers to win the award for a second time, after Joshua received it in 2011 and Campbell in 2009.
Bury fighter Quigg, who is unbeaten in 25 professional fights, will be hoping to follow in the footsteps of Ricky Hatton, Joe Calzaghe, Naseem Hamed, Nigel Benn, Frank Bruno, Barry McGuigan, John H Stracey, John Conteh, Ken Buchanan, Howard Winstone and Terry Downes, who all received the honour before going on to become world champions.
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