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31 July 2014
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upland limestone

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Land Use
Surface Features
Underground Features
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Welcome to this interactive BBC Education site for Higher Still Geography - Upland Limestone.

Learning outcomes
Students should be able to do the following things if they work their way properly through all sections of the site:

  • recognise the main features, both surface and underground, of Carboniferous Limestone.
  • describe the formation of at least two surface limestone features - limestone pavement (clints and grikes) and limestone scars.
  • describe the formation of at least two underground limestone features - stalactites and stalagmites and caverns.
  • do a field sketch incorporating the main physical features of a limestone landscape.
  • describe the different land uses which go on in a limestone area, using the Yorkshire Dales National Park as an example.
  • describe at least three possible conflicts caused by multiple land uses within the park.
  • articulate the different opinions about possible land use conflicts when new developments are being considered.
  • recognise surface limestone features from map extracts.

Curriculum match
The website was developed to match up to the Physical Landscapes and Land Use in the UK section of Intermediate 2. It covers the limestone features and the possible conflicts in either an upland area or a National Park. It could also be used for the Core Lithosphere for Higher Still when looking at Carboniferous Limestone. It could also be used at Standard Grade when looking at conflicts in the countryside.

Navigation and structure of site
The site is divided into five related learning topics, each containing a variety of activities:

  • land use
  • surface features
  • underground features
  • mapwork
  • field drawings

There are two further sections providing revision exercises and a webguide.

Students can work through the site in the suggested order using the links on each page, or navigate using the bar on the left of the screen which will allow them to move freely between sections of the site.

You will require the Flash plug-in of version 4 or higher to view much of the content of this site. It can be downloaded from
For further guidance on how to do this, read

For the audio clips in the People Bank, you will also require a version of the RealPlayer plugin greater than version 5. Please note that the free Realplayer Basic is sufficient. This can be found at
For guidance on how to do this, once again, please refer to

We appreciate knowing what you think of the site and welcome all comments and suggestions. If there's something in Higher Still Upland Limestone you've found really useful, or a part of the site you found difficult to use, please let us know:

Please feel free to print off and use the following material for non-commercial purposes:

Surface features of a limestone landscape

Underground features of a limestone landscape

People bank audio transcripts
John Blewitt
John Brock
Teddy & John Dawson
Richard & Elna Harland
James Hudson
Carl Lis
James Ogden
Gill Robinson
David Sharrod
Pam Whittaker
Ray Wilkes
Chris Wright

Other BBC Resources
This site is part of an integrated resource package and is accompanied by two television and two radio programmes. You can order these additional resources direct from BBC Education Scotland (Information)
Room 305
Broadcasting House
5 Queen Street
Edinburgh EH2 1JF
Tel: 0131 248 4261 Fax: 0131 248 426

Alternatively, this site can stand alone as a learning and teaching aid.

maps by kind permission of Ordnance Survey
Academic Consultant - Malcolm McDonald
Principal Teacher of Geography, Bathgate Academy
additional photography by Clare Pearson
Ordnance Survey

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