Stars form when clumps of interstellar gas and dust collapse in on themselves and drive up internal temperatures and pressures. At a critical stage, nuclear fusion reactions begin and release vast amounts of energy.
Atoms of a star's main fuel, hydrogen, fuse together in the core to form helium. A sequence of fusion reactions at different stages of a massive star's life and eventual supernova death produces all the natural elements.
As successive generations of stars have burned out and exploded as supernovae, the elements have been spread around the Universe to form planets and all living things.
Image: Proxima Centauri, the nearest star to the Sun (credit: NASA/CXC/SAO)
Fusion reactions power suns across the Universe.
John Baldwin explains how he created an image of a star's surface.
Professor John Baldwin describes a novel technique that can be used to see the surface of a nearby star.
Tomorrow's World takes to a hot air balloon to explain supernovae.
Howard Stableford of Tomorrow's World takes to a hot air balloon to explain how a star explodes in a supernova and leaves behind a neutron star or a black hole.
Tomorrow's World reports on the exploded star.
In 1987 Judith Hann and Maggie Philbin report on the exploded star called Supernova 1987a.
Fred Hoyle explains his most important discovery.
Sir Fred Hoyle explains how he discovered that all the heavier elements are created inside stars. This was a major discovery that helped explain the lifecycle of stars.
From clouds of hydrogen came the engines of creation.
At one time the Universe was only a cloud of hydrogen gas created in the Big Bang. Shockwaves from the Big Bang created balls of hydrogen that became more dense and hot until the first stars were born.
A star is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the planet's energy. Some other stars are visible from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points due to their immense distance. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, and the brightest stars gained proper names. Extensive catalogues of stars have been assembled by astronomers, which provide standardized star designations.
For at least a portion of its life, a star shines due to thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium in its core, releasing energy that traverses the star's interior and then radiates into outer space. Once the hydrogen in the core of a star is nearly exhausted, almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the star's lifetime and, for some stars, by supernova nucleosynthesis when it explodes. Near the end of its life, a star can also contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, metallicity (chemical composition), and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, luminosity, and spectrum respectively. The total mass of a star is the principal determinant of its evolution and eventual fate. Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the star's environment affects its rotation and movement. A plot of the temperature of many stars against their luminosities, known as a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (H–R diagram), allows the age and evolutionary state of a star to be determined.
A star's life begins with the gravitational collapse of a gaseous nebula of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium and trace amounts of heavier elements. Once the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into helium through nuclear fusion, releasing energy in the process. The remainder of the star's interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective processes. The star's internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity. Once the hydrogen fuel at the core is exhausted, a star with at least 0.4 times the mass of the Sun expands to become a red giant, in some cases fusing heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core. The star then evolves into a degenerate form, recycling a portion of its matter into the interstellar environment, where it will contribute to the formation of a new generation of stars with a higher proportion of heavy elements. Meanwhile, the core becomes a stellar remnant: a white dwarf, a neutron star, or (if it is sufficiently massive) a black hole.
Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are gravitationally bound, and generally move around each other in stable orbits. When two such stars have a relatively close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, such as a star cluster or a galaxy.