Mars was among the first bodies in the Solar System to be viewed through a telescope. Early astronomers saw faint surface features along with evidence of changing seasons and speculated about an advanced Martian civilisation. Though these ideas are comical today, the search for more primitive life continues.
More recently, six-wheeled rovers have confirmed that water ice exists below the surface.
Photo: Mars taken by Mars Global Surveyor (NASA/JPL/MSSS)
The Red Planet continues to fascinate mankind.
Dr Yan shows Dallas how parallax can reveal the distances of planets and even stars from the Earth.
Dr Yan shows Dallas how parallax can reveal the distances of planets and even stars from the Earth. Try this yourself on distant objects.
As the Sun ages, Mars may reawaken and support life.
As the Sun gets brighter towards the end of its life, it is predicted that water ice on Mars may melt, transforming the Red Planet into a place that could support human life.
BBC News reports on the space telescope's findings.
After a flaw in its mirror was corrected in 1993, the Hubble Space Telescope returned images of unprecedented clarity, as seen in this 1995 BBC News report.
Lynn Rothschild explains how the Earth's orbit makes it special.
Dr Lynn Rothschild explains how the Earth is located in the habitable zone of the Sun, an orbit that permits liquid water to exist. Astronomers hope to find planets similar to the Earth in the habitable zones of other stars as part of their search for places where life could exist.
Brian Cox describes the Solar System's largest volcano.
Professor Brian Cox describes the biggest volcano in the Solar System, Olympus Mons on Mars.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often described as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the second highest known mountain within the Solar System (the tallest on a planet), and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Martian trojan asteroid.
Until the first successful Mars flyby in 1965 by Mariner 4, many speculated about the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. This was based on observed periodic variations in light and dark patches, particularly in the polar latitudes, which appeared to be seas and continents; long, dark striations were interpreted by some as irrigation channels for liquid water. These straight line features were later explained as optical illusions, though geological evidence gathered by unmanned missions suggests that Mars once had large-scale water coverage on its surface at some earlier stage of its life. In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles and at mid-latitudes. The Mars rover Spirit sampled chemical compounds containing water molecules in March 2007. The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on July 31, 2008.
Mars is host to five functioning spacecraft: three in orbit – the Mars Odyssey, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter – and two on the surface – Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity and the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity. Defunct spacecraft on the surface include MER-A Spirit and several other inert landers and rovers such as the Phoenix lander, which completed its mission in 2008. Observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars. In 2013, NASA's Curiosity rover discovered that Mars' soil contains between 1.5% and 3% water by mass (about two pints of water per cubic foot or 33 liters per cubic meter, albeit attached to other compounds and thus not freely accessible).
Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −3.0, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, and the Sun. Optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 km (186 miles) across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earth's atmosphere.