NASA's Mariners 6 and 7 spacecraft flew by Mars within days of each other in 1969.
The two-probe mission returned close-up photographs of the Martian equatorial region and southern hemisphere.
The craft also made temperature and atmospheric measurements.
Photo: The surface of Mars taken by Mariner 7 (NASA/JPL)
A two-probe mission flies by Mars in 1969.
A series of missions finds astonishing features on the Red Planet.
The unmanned Mariner missions gradually revealed Mars's extreme landforms. Perhaps most impressive was Olympus Mons, a volcano three times the size of Mount Everest.
As part of NASA's wider Mariner program, Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 (Mariner Mars 69A and Mariner Mars 69B) completed the first dual mission to Mars in 1969. Mariner 6 was launched from Launch Complex 36B at Cape Kennedy and Mariner 7 from Launch Complex 36A at Cape Kennedy. The craft flew over the equator and south polar regions, analyzing the atmosphere and the surface with remote sensors, and recording and relaying hundreds of pictures. The mission's goals were to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars during close flybys, in order to establish the basis for future investigations, particularly those relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life, and to demonstrate and develop technologies required for future Mars missions. Mariner 6 also had the objective of providing experience and data which would be useful in programming the Mariner 7 encounter 5 days later.