Pluto and its moons

Pluto

Pluto was a planet for 76 years until it was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006.

Discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930, Pluto's existence was first predicted by Percival Lowell in 1915.

Pluto is now thought to be an object in the Kuiper Belt, a disc-shaped area of icy, dark objects beyond Neptune and has one large moon, Charon, and two much smaller moons, Nix and Hydra. In June 2011, Hubble spotted a fourth moon around Pluto that will be called S/2011 (134340) 1 for the time being.

NASA's New Horizons mission is scheduled to reach Pluto in 2015.

Photo: Pluto and its moons (NASA, ESA, H. Weaver (JHU/APL), A. Stern (SwRI), and the HST Pluto Companion Search Team)

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Pluto and its moons

About Pluto

Once a planet, Pluto is now a Kuiper Belt dwarf planet.

About Pluto

Pluto (134340 Pluto) is the largest object in the Kuiper belt,[i][j]; the tenth-most-massive known body directly orbiting the Sun; and the second-most-massive known dwarf planet, after Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is primarily made of rock and ice, and relatively small, about 1/6 the mass of the Moon and 1/3 its volume. It has an eccentric and highly inclined orbit that takes it from 30 to 49 AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun. Hence Pluto periodically comes closer to the Sun than Neptune, but an orbital resonance with Neptune prevents the bodies from colliding. In 2014 it was 32.6 AU from the Sun.

Discovered in 1930, Pluto was originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun. Its status as a major planet fell into question following further study of it and the outer Solar System over the next 75 years. Starting in 1977 with the discovery of the minor planet Chiron, numerous icy objects similar to Pluto with eccentric orbits were found. The most notable of these is the scattered disc object Eris, discovered in 2005, which is 27% more massive than Pluto. The understanding that Pluto is only one of several large icy bodies in the outer Solar System prompted the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to formally define “planet” in 2006. This definition excluded Pluto and reclassified it as a member of the new "dwarf planet" category (and specifically as a plutoid). Astronomers who oppose this decision hold that Pluto should have remained classified as a planet, and that other dwarf planets and even moons should be added to the list of planets along with Pluto.

Pluto has five known moons: Charon (the largest, with a diameter just over half that of Pluto), Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx. Pluto and Charon are sometimes described as a binary system because the barycenter of their orbits does not lie within either body. The IAU has yet to formalise a definition for binary dwarf planets, and Charon is officially classified as a moon of Pluto.

On July 14, 2015, the Pluto system is due to be visited by spacecraft for the first time. The New Horizons probe will perform a flyby during which it will attempt to take detailed measurements and images of Pluto and its moons. Afterwards, the probe may visit several other objects in the Kuiper belt.

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