Both moons are grey in colour, cratered and generally similar in appearance to asteroids that orbit between Mars and Jupiter. One theory is that both moons were once asteroids that were captured by Mars's gravitational force, but this has not been confirmed.
Photo: Phobos taken by the Mars Global Surveyor probe (NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems)
Are Mars's moons really captured asteroids?
An American astronomer discovers Mars' moons.
The 19th and early 20th century American astronomer Asaph Hall discovered Mars' small moons, Phobos and Deimos. Observations of the moons' orbits allowed others to calculate the Red Planet's gravity, which is just under half that of Earth's.
Patrick Moore describes the asteroid belt and its discovery.
Sir Patrick Moore explains how the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter was discovered. He also talks about Bode's Law, an 18th century empirical rule that was once thought to predict planets' orbits. It is now discredited by astronomers, including Sir Patrick.
Before launch in 1988, Phillip Clark explains the ill-fated Russian Phobos missions.
The Soviet Phobos 1 and 2 probes were launched in 1988 and were meant to study Mars's moon Phobos in detail. However, Phobos 1 failed due to a software glitch and Phobos 2 malfunctioned shortly before mission controllers attempted to send two landers from the orbiter onto the moon's surface. In this clip Soviet space programme analyst Phillip Clark explains the probes' missions.
Phobos (systematic designation: Mars I) is the larger and inner of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos. Both moons were discovered in 1877.
Phobos is a small, irregularly shaped object with a mean radius of 11 km, and is seven times more massive than Deimos, Mars's outer moon. Phobos is named after the Greek god Phobos, a son of Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus) which was the personification of Horror. The name "Phobos" is pronounced // FOH-bəs, or like the Greek Φόβος.
Phobos orbits 6,000 km (3,700 mi) from the Martian surface, closer to its primary than any other known planetary moon. It is so close that it orbits Mars faster than Mars rotates, and completes an orbit in just 7 hours and 39 minutes. As a result, from the surface of Mars it appears to rise in the west, move across the sky in 4 hours 15 min or less, and set in the east, twice each Martian day. Due to tidal interactions, Phobos is drawing closer to Mars by one meter every century, and it is predicted that in 50 million years it will collide with the planet or break up into a planetary ring.
Phobos is one of the least reflective bodies in the Solar System, and features a large impact crater, Stickney. The temperatures range from about −4 °C (25 °F) to −112 °C (−170 °F), on the sunlit and shadowed sides respectively.