Snowball Earth describes a theory that for millions of years the Earth was almost entirely or wholly covered in ice, stretching from the poles to the tropics.
This freezing happened over 650 million years ago in the Pre-Cambrian, though it's now thought that there may have been more than one of these global glaciations. They varied in duration and extent but during a full-on snowball event, life could only cling on in ice-free refuges, or where sunlight managed to penetrate through the ice to allow photosynthesis.
Image: Artwork depicting Snowball Earth (credit: Chris Butler/SPL)
Volcanoes may have saved an ice-bound Earth.
Dr Iain Stewart describes Snowball Earth, a period of dramatic cooling that may have started 700 million years ago. He explains how the carbon dioxide from volcanoes may have rescued our planet from an icy fate.
Massive ice sheet melt created violent climate change and unleashed Earth's elemental powers.
Snowball Earth was ended by incredibly violent climate change. Paul Hoffman and Dan Schrag explain the science behind this. This programme was first shown in 2001.
Scientists always agreed on one ice age truth, the tropics cannot freeze... or can they?
Dropstones show that the relentlessly hot deserts of Namibia were once covered in ice. Geologists Paul Hoffman and Dan Schrag investigate. This programme was first shown in 2001.
The Snowball Earth hypothesis posits that the Earth's surface became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, some time earlier than 650 Ma (million years ago). Proponents of the hypothesis argue that it best explains sedimentary deposits generally regarded as of glacial origin at tropical paleolatitudes, and other otherwise enigmatic features in the geological record. Opponents of the hypothesis contest the implications of the geological evidence for global glaciation, the geophysical feasibility of an ice- or slush-covered ocean, and the difficulty of escaping an all-frozen condition. There are a number of unanswered questions, including whether the Earth was a full snowball, or a "slushball" with a thin equatorial band of open (or seasonally open) water.
The geological time frames under consideration come before the sudden appearance of multicellular life forms on Earth known as the Cambrian explosion, and the most recent snowball episode may have triggered the evolution of multi-cellular life on Earth. Another, much earlier and longer, snowball episode, the Huronian glaciation, which occurred 2400 to 2100 Ma may have been triggered by the first appearance of oxygen in the atmosphere, the "Great Oxygenation Event."