Jorvik's last king
Throughout the Viking Age, there were many battles between the Vikings and the English. In the 9th century, the English king Alfred the Great stopped the Vikings taking over all of England. In the 10th century the English reconquered much of the land held by Vikings. In 954, they drove out Eric Bloodaxe, the last Viking king of Jorvik. After Eric was killed in battle, the Vikings in England agreed to be ruled by England's king.
In Viking times, a king had to be strong to fight and keep his land. In the early AD 1000s, England had a weak king. His name was Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred gave Viking raiders gold to stop their attacks. This money was called 'Danegeld'. The Vikings took the gold, but still attacked anyway. So in 1002, Ethelred's soldiers killed Viking families in the Danelaw. This made King Sweyn of Denmark so angry he invaded England. Ethelred had to run away. In 1016 Sweyn's son Cnut became king of England. Cnut (also known as Canute) was a Christian and a strong ruler. For the next few years England was part of his Viking empire, along with Denmark and Norway.
The Norman Conquest
In 1066 England was conquered by William, Duke of Normandy. The Normans were the descendants of Vikings who had settled in France. They took over all of England, including the Danelaw. In 1069 the Normans burned Jorvik. This was the end of the Viking Age in England.
In Scotland, Viking earls went on ruling some islands for hundreds of years. They were driven from the mainland of Scotland by 1100, but remained 'lords of the isles' (the Western Isles) until the 1200s. The islands of Orkney and Shetland were more Norwegian than Scottish. They did not officially become part of Scotland until 1469.
What the Vikings left behind
Archaeologists find the remains of Viking houses, burial sites, treasure hoards, carvings on stones, and writing carved in runes. Vikings left their mark on Britain in other ways too, such as language, Lots of familiar English words originally came from the Vikings' Norse language. Examples are 'husband', 'egg', 'law' and 'knife'. Place names show where Vikings once lived. A place with a name ending in -by, -thorpe or -ay was almost certainly settled by Vikings. The Vikings also left behind many stories about real people, called 'sagas'. Scotland has its own saga from the Viking Age, called 'Orkneyinga Saga' or 'The History of the Earls of Orkney'.