Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms [atom: All elements are made of atoms. An atom consists of a nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. ] lose or gain electrons [electron: An electron is a very small negatively-charged particle found in an atom in the space surrounding the nucleus. ]. They have the same electronic structures as noble gases.
Metal atoms form positive ions, while non-metal atoms form negative ions. The strong electrostatic [electrostatic: An electrostatic force is generated by differences in electric charge (ie positive and negative) between two particles. It can also refer to electricity at rest. ] forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions are called ionic bonds.
Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons [electron: An electron is a very small negatively-charged particle found in an atom in the space surrounding the nucleus. ]. This loss or gain leaves a complete highest energy level, so the electronic structure of an ion is the same as that of a noble gas - such as a helium, neon or argon.
Metal atoms and non-metal atoms go in opposite directions when they ionise:
There is a quick way to work out what the charge on an ion should be:
|Group 1||Group 2||Group 3||Group 4||Group 5||Group 6||Group 7||Group 0|
|Charge||1+||2+||3+||Note 1||3-||2-||1-||Note 2|
|Symbol of ion||Na+||Mg2+||Al3+||Note 1||N3-||O2-||Cl-||Note 2|
Note 1: carbon and silicon in Group 4 usually form covalent bonds [covalent bond: A covalent bond between atoms forms when atoms share electrons to achieve a full outer shell of electrons. ] by sharing electrons.
Note 2: the elements in Group 0 do not react with other elements to form ions.
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