Muscles and movement
The key voluntary muscles used in sport are shown in the illustration.
|Name of muscle||Function||Example in sport|
|Triceps||Extend the arm at the elbow||Press-up, throwing a javelin|
|Biceps||Flex the arm at the elbow||Pull-up, drawing a bow in archery|
|Deltoids||Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder||Bowling a cricket ball|
|Pectorals||Adduct the arm at the shoulder||Forehand drive in tennis|
|Trapezius||Hold the shoulders in place, move head back and sideways||Holding head up in rugby scrum|
|Gluteals||Adduct and extend leg at the hips||Pulling back leg before kicking a ball|
|Quadriceps||Extend the leg at the knee||Kicking a ball jumping upwards|
|Hamstrings||Flex the leg at the knee||Bending knee before kicking a ball|
|Gastrocnemius||Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee||Running|
|Latissimus dorsi||Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder||Butterfly stroke in swimming|
|Abdominals||Flex the trunk across the stomach||Pulling the body down when hurdling|
Origin and insertion of muscles (AQA only) The origin is the end of a muscle which is attached to a fixed bone. The insertion is the end of the muscle that is attached to the bone which moves.