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Physical Education

Motivation and training skills, tactics and strategies


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In sport, motivation is everything.

Your level of motivation is also known as arousal and can come intrinsically from yourself, or might be extrinsic like a cash reward. Arousal also depends on your personality, so if you’re an extrovert, you’ll require more arousal than a quieter person to keep you interested. Skill training is also varied to bring out the best in everyone and ranges from unopposed to pressure training.

Training skills, tactics and strategies

Open skills and closed skills are developed in drills during training sessions. Open skills are performed where you cannot predict what will happen next, eg in an invasion game such as hockey. Closed skills are performed where you can control the environment, eg putting in golf.

Drills are training methods that involve repeating a technique or skill.

Two players in a rugby tackle

Skill training can include active opposition

Skill training can take one of four forms:

  • Unopposed – with no opposition, giving time to learn techniques and practise skills.
  • Passive opposition – with opponents in place who do not attempt to beat the performers. This gives a feel of the situation and is useful for beginners who still need time to develop their technique.
  • Active opposition – the opposition actively try to tackle, intercept or stop the performers succeeding.
  • Pressure training – working hard for a long time, or having to react very quickly imitates competition. This makes these drills very good for experienced performers.

Skills need to transfer into game situations and coaches use two training methods to develop tactics [Tactics: The methods used to put strategies into practice in matches and are often adapted as the game develops. ] and strategies [Strategies: Long-term plans. ]:

  • Modified games use different rules or formats to give players plenty of contact with the ball, eg five-a-side football.
  • Conditioned games have rule changes that focus on specific skills or tactics, eg two-touch football to develop control and passing.


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