A hook is a short catchy melodic idea designed to be instantly memorable.
A fill is a short flourish used to fill a gap between phrases and is often played on drums.
A break is an extended instrumental section in dance music or a solo in pop and jazz, usually improvised.
A sequence is a pattern of notes which goes up or down in pitch every time it is repeated. Here is a simple rising sequence. The first four notes set the pattern, which is then repeated over and over, each time higher in pitch.
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