What was to blame?
The February Revolution of 1917 brought the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty to an end. What caused the uprising?
In 1917, the Russian monarchy collapsed.
There are three main theories as to why:
Writing for an academic website, the historian Philip Mosley suggested:
The immediate cause of the February Revolution of 1917 was the collapse of the Tsarist regime under the gigantic strain of World War I. The underlying cause was the backward economic condition of the country, which made it unable to sustain the war effort against powerful, industrialized Germany.
Philip E Mosley, late Professor of International Relations, Columbia University
Notice how he doesn't choose one of the three factors as being the cause of the Revolution. Instead, he suggests that the revolution was caused by a mixture of all three factors working together - the underlying weaknesses of the government meant that, when he was faced by problems during the First World War, the tsar could not cope with them and fell from power. You may wish to take this as your overview conclusion of the causes of the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia.
Look back through this section (Russia - Revolutions). Review the importance of long-term weaknesses, the First World War, and the role of the tsar and decide which you think was the most important factor in causing the February Revolution.
As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain: