Stalin - collectivisation
Why did Stalin collectivise the farms?
- He wanted more food to feed the workers in industry.
- He needed a surplus of food to sell overseas to bring money into the country.
- He needed people to leave the land and go to work in industry.
- He wanted an excuse to destroy the kulaks, who believed in private ownership, not communism.
How successful was collectivisation?
Stalin achieved most of his aims:
- Grain production rose to nearly 100 million tonnes in 1937, although the numbers of animals never recovered.
- Russia sold large quantities of grain to other countries.
- Some 17 million people left the countryside to go to work in the towns.
- The kulaks were eliminated.
- The peasants were closely under the government's control.
However, the human cost was immense:
- Perhaps 3 million kulaks were killed.
- There were famines in 1930 and 1932-3 when 5 million people starved to death.
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