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History

The end of appeasement

Why Chamberlain abandoned appeasement

Chamberlain made the Munich Agreement with Hitler to prevent war, but, in the year after September 1938, there were six factors pressurising him to abandon his policy of appeasement.

Two categories of factors

Things happening in EuropeThings happening in Britain
November 1938: Kristallnacht - attacks on the Jews in Germany.Churchill's speeches: attacked appeasement as "a defeat without a war".
March 1939: Czechoslovakia - Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia. October 1938: Oxford by-election - Chamberlain's Conservatives won, but the anti-appeasement candidate got lots of votes.
May 1939: Pact of Steel: an alliance was formed between Germany and Italy to help each other in times of war.Lack of trust: Britain was building up its armed forces throughout 1938 and 1939.

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