The Munich Putsch 1923
In November 1923, Hitler tried to take advantage of the crisis facing the Weimar government by instigating a revolution in Munich. It seemed like the perfect opportunity, but poor planning and misjudgement resulted in failure and the subsequent imprisonment of Adolf Hitler.
At first, the Nazis were just a terrorist group. Hitler assembled a large group of unemployed young men and former soldiers, known as the storm troopers (the SA), which attacked other political groups. Hitler hoped to take power by starting a revolution [revolution: A complete or radical change. In political terms, revolution involves a radical change in government. ].
During the crisis of 1923, therefore, Hitler plotted with two nationalist politicians - Kahr and Lossow - to take over Munich in a revolution.
Hitler collected his storm troopers and told them to be ready to rebel.
But then, on 4 October 1923, Kahr and Lossow called off the rebellion. This was an impossible situation for Hitler, who had 3,000 troops ready to fight.
On the night of 8 November 1923, Hitler and 600 storm troopers burst into a meeting that Kahr and Lossow were holding at the local Beer Hall. Waving a gun at them, Hitler forced them to agree to rebel - and then let them go home. The SA took over the army headquarters and the offices of the local newspaper.
The next day, 9 November 1923, Hitler and his Nazis went into Munich on what they thought would be a triumphal march to take power.
However, Kahr had called in police and army reinforcements. There was a short scuffle in which the police killed 16 Nazis.
Hitler fled, but was arrested two days later.
The Munich Putsch was a failure. As a result:
To become familiar with these events, identify the facts and arguments you would use to support these statements about the Munich Putsch:
As part of your revision, think about the arguments and facts you would use to explain:
Think carefully about what the question is asking before you answer. A question on why the Munich Putsch happened will need a very different answer to a question on what happened in the Munich Putsch, or how the Munich Putsch affected the Nazi party.