Upper-course river features include steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges.
Middle-course river features include wider, shallower valleys, meanders, and oxbow lakes.
Lower-course river features include wide flat-bottomed valleys, floodplains and deltas.
As the river moves through the upper course it cuts downwards. The gradient here is steep and the river channel is narrow. Vertical erosion in this highland part of the river helps to create steep-sided V-shaped valleys, interlocking spurs, rapids, waterfalls and gorges.
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