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Geography

Erosional landforms

Erosion creates features such as caves, arches, stacks and stumps. Watch this video to find out how.

Video

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Key points

  • One of the most common features of the coastline is a cliff. They are shaped through a combination of coastal erosion and weathering.
  • Weathering weakens the top of the cliff while the sea attacks its base, forming a wave-cut notch.
  • Headlands and bays are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast that has alternate bands of hard and soft rock.
  • Caves are made when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face. If the cave is in a headland, it can break through to the other side forming an arch.
  • The arch will grow until it can no longer support its top. It collapses, leaving the headland on one side and a stack on the other.

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