The key social and cultural influences of the time were:
In 1859, Samuel Smiles published his book Self-Help, which told people that if they worked hard they could improve their station in life. The 19th century was the age of the 'self-made man'.
In Victorian times, society was strictly layered - not only into rich and poor, or even upper, middle and lower class, but hundreds of 'grades'. People were expected to 'know their place', and the Church taught them to be content in their 'station'. Dickens did not like the effects of social class.
At the time, many people were becoming aware of the need to improve the condition in which the poor found themselves. Dickens was a great supporter of social reformreform: Change for the better, often within politics or society. - especially in education and prisons.
In Victorian times, Britain was overwhelmingly Christian. The Church dominated religion and the morals of the time. Dickens, however, disapproved of the power the Church had over people's lives.
Family was at the centre of Victorian society. People had large, extended families - although Dickens was aware that not all families were happy families.