An overview of the technologies for the real-time mixing of real and virtual images for live TV production is presented. On-set visualization in film production has much in common with this application area; it aims to generate a view of the scene, including virtual elements, in real-time, to help the production crew in tasks such as shot framing. A short review is presented of how some techniques developed for TV have been applied to film. A related area is pre-visualization, where computer graphics are used to simulate a view of a scene before any shooting takes place. Pre-visualization is already applied extensively in film production, but in TV production the traditional tools of paper-based storyboards and cardboard models of a set are still in common use. An example of a tool that provides an intuitive way of planning and visualizing a production is briefly described, which is applicable to both TV and film.

This paper was presented on 22nd October 2006 at the International Workshop on Mixed Reality Technology for Filmmaking, University of California at Santa Barbara, USA (in association with ISMAR 2006).