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Go to the Listen Again page
Tuesday 15:00-15:30
Richard Daniel chairs the interactive environmental programme in which he and his guests deal with listener's questions and concerns.
Call 0370 010 0400
Home Planet, PO Box 3096, Brighton BN1 1PL
LISTEN AGAINListen 30 min
Listen to 17 January
Richard Daniel
Tuesday 17 January 2006
Earth ©NASA


Dr Ros Taylor
Kingston University

Dr Nick Riley
British Geological Survey

Professor Philip Stott
Bio-geographer, University of London


Is the transportation of Liquefied Natural Gas sustainable and safe?
The panel discussed where LNG comes from, how it is transported and the amount of energy used to process it. There was a discussion about which country accounts for the C02 emitted during LNG production - the one where the gas is produced or the one which actually uses the gas?

LNG tends to come from gas deposits under the ground near coastlines, places such as South East Asia, the Middle East, Australia and Norway. One of the key benefits of LNG is that it allows access to gas that otherwise would be stranded with no access to gas grids. However, LNG is fairly energy intensive in production. It has a higher calorific value than piped natural gas and therefore it has to be blended with nitrogen. Nitrogen production is very energy intensive. The panel felt that shipping LNG was quite an efficient way of moving it around. Bulk sea transport is an efficient way of moving goods and the LNG tankers use there cargo to power the ship. LNG is a much cleaner fuel than standard ship bunker fuel. On average about 2 per cent of the ships load is used to fuel the ship. Movement by ship is also historically quite safe.

The UK Government does not consider emissions generated outside its national border. So C02 emitted from the production of LNG is not added to our annual "bill". Some commentators believe that this presents a huge problem in calculating and tackling carbon emissions.

LNG Journal - regularly updated on-line information about LNG
The Australian
Government plans to store gas at sea
The Guardian - safety of the LNG tanker fleet Energy for Wales
Friends of the Earth Cymru

How much C02 do we each breathe out?
Dr Nick Riley calculated it like this:

From spirometry measurements (National Lung Health Education Programme), assuming that about 450ml/min of CO2 are expired per person per minute - this means the net CO2 respired (CO2 produced by respiration) is around 400ml/min

1g of CO2 has a volume of 556ml. Therefore 400ml has weight of 0.72g. Therefore in 1 hour the net CO2 released is 0.72 X 60=43.2g

One day is 43.2 X 24=1036g or 1.036kg.

One year is 1.036 X 365= 378.332Kg or 0.378332 metric tonnes

If the global population is 6.5bn this comes to a total weight of 2.459158000Gt.

For comparison the total world emissions of CO2 from human activity (excluding respiration) is around 27Gt. Of which the per capita average emissions are for a each citizen as follows:

USA 5.4 tonnes/person/annum
UK 2.59
China 0.6
India 0.3

Arsenic in drinking water
How does arsenic get into the drinking water in Bangladesh?
The British Geological Survey
Arsenic in groundwaters across the world

Energy loss on the High Street
Sainsbury's at Greenwich
British Retail Consortium
Association of Convenience Stores

Professor James Lovelock and Climate Change
The panel were asked about claims made by Professor James Lovelock that we are "beyond the point of return".

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