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One thousand years of classical music.
The series has now ended.
James Naughtie

The Making of Music

James Naughtie uncovers the roots of our music. His journey reveals how composers and performers, princes and patrons, and the chance happenings of history built a classical tradition that is the soundtrack to our history and tells a glittering and inspiring story.

Listen to audio from Radio 3 and Radio 4

The Making of Music

James Naughtie traces the history of 1000 years of classical music and explores its historical context.

More Music on Radio 3

Radio 3 follows up each edition of The Making of Music with an hour of music related to that edition.


Please note: The programme information displayed below presents the current week first. Please note: the week after the end of the broadcast of the series, the editions available on listen again will be reduced as each edition from the final week has completed being available online for 7 days.

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about the music featured in the latest editions.

Classical Music Timeline

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Explore the Timeline

Explore 1000 years of classical music, read narratives, profiles and view music in its historical context.

Series 2 - Episode Guide - Week 6: 15 to 19 October 2007

Monday Programme 26.
The Sixties

The music that most of us associate with the sixties has little to do with the classical music tradition, this programme discovers what was happening in the classical world when the majority were talking pop, rock and the Beatles. If you look at Peter Blake's cover for the Sergeant Pepper album in 1967 who¹s peaking out from the crowd of celebrities and cultural icons of the time? The composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, Paul McCartney was a great admirer of his work.

In 1968 and English composer John Tavener wrote In alium and found that his instinctive mysticism managed to span his intellectual approach to composition and found resonances with the sounds and feeling of the times: his cantata the Whale was first issued on The Beatles Apple label in the late sixties and this was music that gave the lie to the simplistic division between the popular and the high-minded. James Naughtie also discusses the work of Terry Riley, Steve Reich and Peter Maxwell Davies, modernist composers trying to make their voices heard above the noise of teen culture.

Music from this edition

Stockhausen: Stimmung
Artists: Singcircle/Director, Gregory Rose
Hyperion CDA66115 Track 12

Tavener: In Alium - Section D
Artists:Eileen Hulse (soprano)/Ulster Orchestra/Takuo Yuasa
NAXOS 8.554388

Peter Maxwell Davies: Eight songs for a Mad King
Artists:Julius Eastman (baritone)/The Fires of London/Peter Maxwell Davies
NAXOS 8.558191-92 CD1 Track 6

Terry Riley: In C
Artists:Ars Nova Copenhagen/Percurama Percussion Ensemble/Paul Hillier
Ars Nova 8.226049

John Coltrane: Africa
Artists:The John Coltrane Quartet
The Complete Africa/Brass Sessions cd1
IMPULSE IMP 21682 Track 5

Reich : Piano phase
Artists:Ensemble Avantgarde
WER 6630-2 Track 3

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Tuesday Programme 27
Dissent

We hear how the political divide between Eastern and Western Europe in the second half of the twentieth century influenced the way new music developed.

Music was being used or at least seen as a way of expressing a dissenting voice to the establishment. In the east the communist authorities were encouraging modernism when Henry Gorecki¹s third symphony was heard at the Warsaw Festival in Poland in 1976 it caused a near scandal, it wasn't modern enough yet in the west it was a roaring success and sold millions of copies.

Gorecki embracing romantic expressionism was seen amongst modernists as rebellion, harking back to the past and failing to push intellectual and musical boundaries. In Germany the composer Hans Werner Henze whose politics were shaped by his loathing of Fascism, wanted to use his music as a political force. He believed that music could educate and uplift; his The Raft of the Medusa also caused uproar as the choir refused to sing because the red flag was draped across the podium. This programme explains how after the 1960s modernists, while still having some intellectual clout in Germany and Italy especially, didn¹t speak for the masses whom they wanted to represent. But rather, a new music expressing a return to spirituality was going to catch the public's imagination.

Music from this edition

Gorecki: Symphony No.3 - Third Mvt
Artists: Zofia Kilanowicz(soprano)/ Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra (Katowice)/Antoni Wit
Naxos 8.550822 Track 3

Henze: The Raft of the Medusa - The ballad of the man on the raft
Artists: Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone)/North German Radio (NDR) Chorus/RIAS Chamber Choir/Members of the St. Nikolai Boys' Choir/North German Radio (NDR) Symphony Orchestra, Hamburg/Hans Werner Henze
DG 449 871-2 Track 15

Berio: O King
Artists: Ensemble Avantgarde/Thomas Michael Gribow
MD& G - MDG61307542 Track 3

Gubaidulina - In Croce
Artists: Elsbeth Moser, bayan/Maria Kliegel, cello
Naxos 8.553557 Track 1

Gorecki: Beatus Vir, Op.38
Artists: Andrzej Dobber (baritone)/Polish Radio Choir/Silesian Philharmonic Choir/Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra (Katowice)/Antoni Wit
Naxos 8.555375 Track 1

Gorecki: Symphony No.3 - Third Mvt
Artists: Zofia Kilanowicz(soprano)/ Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra (Katowice)/Antoni Wit
Naxos 8.550822 Track 3

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Wednesday Programme 28.
The Impact of Technology

James Naughtie looks at how composers have always tried to find new ways of making different sounds and how they experimented with electronic technology to try to push the boundaries of what was possible: Debussy had been enthralled by the gamelan players he heard at the Paris exhibition, Messiaen by the song of a blackbird.

Musicians are always looking for ways of replicating natural sounds; the slap of a wave on the beach or the sighing of the wind. And they have had the opportunity in the course of the last hundred years to use electronic technology to do it. This programme explores some of the ways composers have done this but draws the conclusions that the dreams about electronic classical music have turned out to be dreams after all and ultimately composers have, in the main, turned to the instruments of the traditional orchestra to try to catch the flavour of a mechanical world.

Music from this edition

Messiaen: Turangalila - Chant d'amour 2
Artists: François Weigel, piano/Thomas Bloch , Ondes Martenot/Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra/Antoni Wit
NAXOS: 8.554478-79 Track 4

Honegger: Pacific 231
Artists: New Zealand Symphony Orchestra/Takuo Yuasa
NAXOS 8.555974 Track 6

Varèse: Arcana
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra/ Christopher Lyndon-Gee
NAXOS 8.554820 Track 1

Ligeti: San Francisco Polyphony
Artists: Sinfonie-Orchester des Schwedischen Rundfunks/Elgar Howarth
WER6016350 - Track 5

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Thursday Programme 29
A Time of Plenty

This programme looks at the importance and impact of modern British composers, like John Tavener, who it is likely will put an indelible stamp on their time. Tavener is a composer who has become popular in a most surprising way. He¹s a mystic, a member of the Russian Orthodox Church who¹s interested above all in spirituality, which represents a striking trend that took hold in the last quarter of the Twentieth Century> His Song for Athene was played at Princess Diana¹s funeral.

With other composers like the Scottish composer James Macmillan, Tavener far from emptying concert halls or churches or theatres, as many composers in recent decades have been fated to do, has packed them with enthusiasts. With Thomas Ades, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies and Mark Anthony Turnage they¹re in a vanguard of an exciting period of creativity.

Music from this edition

Tavener: The Protecting Veil
Artists: Maria Kliegel, cello/Ulster Orchestra/Takuo Yuasa
NAXOS 8.554388 Track 7

Pärt: Tabula Rasa - Ludus
Artists: Leslie Hatfield & Rebecca Hirsch (violins)/Ulster Orchestra/Takuo Yuasa
NAXOS 8.554591 Track 1

MacMillan: The Confession of Isobel Gowdie
Artists: BBC Philharmonic/James MacMillan
Chandos CHAN10275 Track 1

Maxwell Davies: Home from Seven Songs Home
Artists: The Choir of St. Mary's School, Edinburgh/Peter Maxwell Davies
NAXOS 8.558191 Track 13

Tavener: Song for Athene
Artists: Choir of St. John's College, Cambridge/Christopher Robinson
NAXOS 8.558152 Track 15

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Friday Programme 30
The Making of Music

In the final programme in the series James Naughtie looks back at the journey covered, from the early monasteries through the Renaissance and up to the present day.

He explores the link between all the composers across the centuries and the current state of classical music. the programme looks at China where the extraordinary popularity of western classical music means that tens of millions of children there are leaning to play the piano and violin. Finally, James Naughtie ends the journey with Beethoven¹s ninth symphony that used Schiller¹s words on brotherhood, a piece that celebrates friendship, survival and hope and like so much of music, it¹s a piece that explains us to ourselves.

Music from this edition

Glass: Violin Concerto
Adele Anthony (violin)/Ulster Orchestra/Takuo Yuasa
NAXOS 8.554568 Track 5

Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier Book 1 - Prelude in E flat major
Angela Hewitt (piano)
Hyperion CDA67301/2 CD1 Track 13

Schubert: An die Musik, D547
Edith Mathis, soprano/Graham Johnson, piano
Hyperion CDJ33021 Track 11

Puccini - Vissi d'arte, vissi d'amore (Tosca)
Nelly Miricioiu, soprano/Slovak Philharmonic Chorus/Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava)/Alexander Rahbari
NAXOS 8.660001-02 CD2 Track 12

Beethoven: Symphony No.9 in D minor, Op.125 'Choral' - Finale: Presto
Gabriele Lechner, soprano/Diane Elias, mezzo-soprano/Michael Pabst, tenor/Robert Holzer, bass/Zagreb Philharmonic/ Richard Edlinger
NAXOS 8.550181 Track 4

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Series 2 - Episode Guide - Week 5: 8 to 12 October 2007

Monday Programme 21.
War Again

During the 1930¹s some composers left Europe due to their political disgust. There were those who were forced to flee, usually to America, but this programme focuses on those who remained and had to deal with the catastrophe of war.

We explore the music they were inspired to write at that time. James Naughtie looks at Dmitiri Shostakovich¹s seventh symphony, the Leningrad, much of which was written during the 900 day siege of that city in which three quarter of a million Russian died, at how it reflects the composers response to the horrors of war.

In Britain, Michael Tippett had spent a few years in the Communist Party in the 1930s but soon lost faith in its creed. On the day war broke out in September 1939 he began to write the oratorio A Child of Our Time, in which he said the hero for whom the music expressed sympathy was the scapegoat, the one who gets all the blame. He¹d been inspired by the story of the Polish Jew, Herschel Grynspan, whose assassination of a German diplomat in Paris in 1938 was one of the causes of Hitler¹s organized assault on German Jews on Kristallnacht in that year. For Tippett, the persecution, that is the subject of the oratorio, was the most important emblem of war. As a pacifist and conscientious objector he was jailed for refusing to do war work as an alternative to military service, and in a Child of our Time he deals with the question of the outsider, or the group that can¹t be understood.

And we hear what happened to those musicians who were Jewish who stayed in Germany,

Music from this edition

Shostakovich: Symphony no. 7 - Allegretto
Artists: Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava)/Ladislav Slovák
NAXOS 8.550627 Track 1

Vaughan Williams: Symphony No.5 in D major - 3rd movement
Artists: Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra/Kees Bakels
NAXOS 8.550738 Track 3

Tippett :from A Child of Our Time - Steal Away
Artists: Faye Robinson (soprano)/Sarah Walker (mezzo-soprano)/Jon Garrison (tenor)/John Cheek (bass)/City of Birmingham Symphony Chorus/City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra/Sir Michael Tippett NAXOS 8.557570 Track 8

Messiaen: Quartet for the End of Time - Louange à l'immortalité de Jésus
Artists: Amici Ensemble
NAXOS: 8.554824 Track 8

Strauss: Metamorphosen
Artiists: The Nash Ensemble
HYPERION Metamorphosen & Piano Quartet CDA67574 Track 1

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Tuesday Programme 22
Those Who Got away

What happened to those musicians who fled from Nazi Germany and the spread of fascism across Europe? From Hungary Bela Bartok fled to America, from Germany, Arnold Schoenberg. When Hitler came to power Jewish musicians were forbidden from playing in orchestras and there was a systematic purge of artists who might defile the true culture.

James Naughtie reveals that despite the misery of the situation there were some benefits; the exodus of a number of the finest European musicians to America enriched the nations musical life, famous composers like Milhaud were employed to teach in universities.

And in England when John Christie established his private opera house at his home at Glyndebourne in the Sussex Downs in 1934, he managed it by drawing on the talents of some of those fleeing Nazi Europe. Fritz Busch became the musical director, Carl Ebert the first producer from 1934-9) (he¹d run the Staatsoper in Berlin) and the first manager from 1936-9 was Rudolf Bing, later to go on to run the Metropolitan Opera in New York. All three were exiles from Hitler¹s Europe.

Music from this edition

Bertold Goldschmidt:Passacaglia
Artists: City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra/Simon Rattle
DECCA 4525992 Track 1

Bartok: Music for Strings, Perc & Celeste 1st movement
Artists: BRT Philharmonic Orchestra, Brussels/Alexander Rahbari
NAXOS 8.550261 Track 6

Schumann: Dichterliebe, Op.48 Lotte Lehmann: Lieder Recordings Vol.3
Artists: Lotte Lehmann (soprano)/Bruno Walter (piano)
NAXOS 8.111244 Track 9

Milhaud: carnaval à la nouvelle-orléans Op.275
Artists: Stephen Coombs (piano)/Artur Pizarro (piano)
HYPERION CDA 67014 Track 10

Stravinsky: Symphony in 3 movements -1st movement
Artists: New Zealand Symphony Orchestra/En Shao
NAXOS 8.553403 Track 5

Stravinsky: Agon - Four Trios
Artists: Orchestra of St. Luke's/Robert Craft
NAXOS 8.557502 Track 26

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Wednesday Programme 23.
Britain Victorious

We pick up the story, of how history had influenced the development of classical music, at the end of the Second World War.

James Naughtie begins by focusing on Benjamin Britten¹s Peter Grimes. First performed in June 1945 it spoke to the audience of emotions that had been shaped by the experience of war, its deprivations, isolation, the knowledge of violence and an island nations power of the sea. James Naughtie explores it¹s importance and how composers began to respond to the changing times.

The peaceful pastoralist Ralph Vaughan Williams was alarmed by the nuclear age and fearful of the cold war, his Sixth Symphony written in 1948 clearly reflects his anxieties and sounds a defiant note

Music from this edition

Britten: Sea Interludes from Peter Grimes - Dawn
Artists: London Symphony Orchestra/ Steuart Bedford
NAXOS 8.557196 Track 11

Vaughan Williams:Symphony no.6 - Allegro
Artists: Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra/Kees Bakels
NAXOS 8.550733 - Track 5

Tippett : Ritual Dances from Midsummer Marriage
Artists: BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra/George Hurst
NAXOS 8.553591 - Track 1

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Thursday Programme 24
The Modernists

It was natural that after the Second World War European composers should turn away from the past. While Frenchman Pierre Boulez had deep admiration for Beethoven and others he felt obliged to move in another direction. He wanted to rediscover fundamental principles and this impulse to clear away the debris was very strong in many young composers.

In Hungary Gyorgy Ligeti wanted to start again as he found musical forms of the past irrelevant and even invalid.In this programme Jim explores how this new generation were experimenting with reconstructing music to make it speak to the new generation.

Music from this edition

Boulez: Piano Sonata No.2 - 1st movt.
Artists: Idil Biret (piano)
NAXOS 8.553353 Track 3

Messiaen: La Merle Noir
French Flute Music
Artists: Patrick Gallois (flute)/Lydia Wong (piano)
NAXOS 8.557328 - Track 4

Henze: Violin Concerto No 1
Artists: Peter Sheppard Skærved (violin)/ Saarbrücken Radio Symphony Orchestra/Christopher Lyndon-Gee NAXOS 8.557738 Track 1

Cage: Sonata No.5
Artists: John Cage: Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano Boris Berman (piano)

NAXOS 8.554345 - Track 6

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Friday Programme 25
Leonard Bernstein

This programme focuses on the work of one musician, the composer, conductor and broadcaster, Leonard Bernstein. He embraced the classical and the popular and brought them together just at the time when the avant garde movement looked like it would pull them apart.

James Naughtie explains the importance of his 1957 musical West Side Story , how Lenny¹s glamour and star quality packed Broadway theatres and filled world famous concert halls. He made classical music relevant and accessible to a new audience

Music from this edition

Bernstein: America - West Side Story
Artists: Marianne Cooke (Anita)/Joanna Chozen (Rosalia)/Nashville Symphony Orchestra/Kenneth Schermerhorn
Naxos 8.559126 Track 9 for WW

Bernstein: America - West Side Story
Artists: Tatiana Troyanos (Anita)/Louise Edeiken (Rosalia)/Orchestra and Chorus/Leonard Bernstein
On DG 4571992 Track 12 for TX only

Bernstein: Symphony no. 1 'Jeremiah' (3rd movt. - Lamentation)
Artists: Helen Medlyn (mezzo-soprano)/New Zealand Symphony Orchestra/James Judd
Naxos 8.559100 Track 3

Bernstein: Overture to Candide
Artists: Florida Philharmonic Orchestra/James Judd
Naxos 8.559099 Track 1

Bernstein: Chichester Psalms
Artists: Thomas Kelly (treble)/Bournemouth Symphony Chorus and Orchestra/Marin Alsop
NAXOS 8.559177 Track 3

Bernstein: Tonight - West Side Story
Artists: Betsi Morrison (Maria)/Mike Eldred (Tony)/Marianne Cooke (Anita)/Robert Dean (Riff)/Michael San Giovanni (Bernardo)/Nashville Symphony Orchestra/Kenneth Schermerhorn
Naxos 8.559126 Track 12 for WW

Bernstein: Tonight (from Finale) - West Side Story
Artists: Kiri Te Kanawa (Maria)/José Carreras (Tony)/Orchestra and Chorus/Leonard Bernstein
On DG 4571992 Track 27 for TX only

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Series 2 - Episode Guide - Week 4: 1 to 5 October 2007

Monday Programme 16.
Into the Past

When things start to get a little wild someone usually calls for order. This programme looks at how in the 1930's when old social order's were breaking down, when jazz was taking hold, one of the greatest twentieth century composer, the French, Francis Poulenc looked back in time for his inspiration. To an era when classical line and form was everything, the world was well-ordered and artists held a perfectly-polished mirror up to nature and so twentieth century neo-classicism was established.

Poulenc wanted to remind people of a time when music-making had reached one of its great peaks...when structure was sound and beauty well-defined. James Naughtie explores the work of those composers like Poulenc and Ravel, who combined his liking for Jazz with a desire to recall the past. Jim explains how the most important thing about this movement was not that it was not trying to obliterate the new but give a different dimension to modern composers.

Music from this edition

Poulenc Album: Organ Concerto, Concert Champetre.
Artists: Elisabeth Chojnacka (Harpsichord) Orchestre National de Lille, conductor: Jean Claude Casadessus
Concert Champetre Track 10 Finale Presto
NAXOS 8.554241

Ravel - Tombeau de Couperin
Artists: Angela Hewitt
HYP - CDA673412 - piano CD 1 Track 18 title: Menuet Album: Ravel, the complete solo piano music.

Stravinsky: Album: Pulcinella
Artists: Perf: Bournemouth Sinfonietta, Stefan Sanderling (conductor)
NAXOS 8.553181
Track 1: Overture.Pub: 1995 HNH International.

Stravinsky: Album: Piano Music (Sonata, Serenade, three movements from Petrushka)
Artists: Peter Hill
Track 2 Piano Sonata (second movement) NAXOS 8.553871

Prokofiev - Album: Symphonies nos 1 "Classical" and 2 .
Perf: National Symphony Orchestra of Ukraine, Theodore Kuchar (conductor)
Track 6 4th movement Final Molto vivace
NAXOS 8.553053

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Tuesday Programme 17
Music for the Masses

This programme explores how the new rise of democracy influenced the way music was written and performed. We are moving into the era when classical music was available for all - for them to listen to but also to participate in. In the carnage of the First World War old empires were carried away.

Musicians, like Kurt Weill, were interested in writing about, and representing, collective achievement, not the glories of the individual or paying homage to a ruler. We look at the importance of the German composer Paul Hindemith a man who believed that a society that made music together couldn't make war. He wasn't interested in being a lonely artist but wanted to engage society in his work - he wanted children involved in helping him put together an opera.

By the 1930's many composers felt obliged to turn their originality to vast audiences who were, for the first time, buying vinyl discs or sheet music. In Britain, Vaughan Williams was using his Leith Festival to promote music as part of a common, shared culture with choral pieces for local amateur choirs and orchestras.

Music from this edition

Weill - Album: Der Lindberghflug

Artists: Pro Musica Köln/Kölner Rundfunkorchester/Jan Latham-König/Wolfgang Schmidt/Herbert Feckler/Lorenz Minth/Christoph Scheeben
Label: Capriccio 60 012-1. Track 2 Erstens. Pub: 1990 Capriccio

Hindemith - Album: Das Klavierwerk vol III. Track 22 Wir Bauen Eine Stadt
Artists: Siegfried Mauser - Piano
Label: Wergo - WER6214-2

Weill - Album: The Singing Apes. Track 13 Das Berliner Requiem
Artists: Uppsala Chamber Orchestra, Orphei Drangar / Robert Sund
Label BIS-CD-733.

Orff - Album: Carmina Burana
Artists: Bournemouth Symphony Orch and chorus, conductor: Marin Alsop.
NAXOS 8.570033. Track 5 I in Spring.

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Wednesday Programme 18.
Cinema

The film industry became the great patron of music in the 20th century. In the earliest days of Hollywood films were accompanied by a pianist often playing a classical medley but with the arrival of recorded sound composers turned to the silver screen.

The cinema gave musicians a whole new world to explore and a new language to learn. We chart the rise of film music from the days when composers, like Erich Korngold, wrote the tunes to accompany Errol Flynn through several of his adventures, to the work of Max Steiner - possibly one of the most successful Hollywood composers who's credits include Casablanca and Gone with the Wind - who saw his role to make music 'that should be felt and not heard'.

Music from this edition

Shostakovich: Album: Piano Sonata no 1 24
Artists: Konstantin Scherbakov (piano)
Preludes: Track 35: Piano Sonata no 1 Op. 12
NAXOS 8.555781.

Steiner - Album: Great Hollywood Epics.
Artists: Richard Hayman and his Symphony Orchestra
Track 5:Gone with the Wind (Tara's theme)
NAXOS 8.990024. Pub: 1990 HNH International.

Georges Auric: Album Beauty and the Beast:
Artists: Moscow Symphony Orch and Axios Chorus, conductor: Adriano
Track 1:Generique NAXOS: 8.557707.

Prokofiev: Album: Alexander Nevsky
Artists: Irina Gelahova, Stanislavsky Chorus and Russian State Symphony Orch conductor: Dmitry Yablonsky
Track 5 The Battle on the Ice. NAXOS 8.555710.

Walton - Album: Henry V. Track 9 Epilogue
Artists: Narrated by Michael Sheen and Anton Lesser & RTE Concert Orch, conductor: Andrew Penny
NAXOS 8.553343. Pub:1998 HNH International.

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Thursday Programme 19.
Stalin

James Naughtie explains how composers like Shostakovich and Prokofiev faired under the Stalinist regime. Shostakovich's only opera, while having been performed to great acclaim in the rest of Europe was banned in Russia. It did not conform to Stalin's own definition of 'socialist realism'. Shostakovich was a loyal Soviet citizen who had an ambiguous relationship with the regime. James Naughtie explains how, despite the restrictions imposed upon him he can still lay claim to being one of the centuries greatest composers. And,like Prokofiev, the quality of his music is inseparable from the agony of the Soviet Union at that time.

Music from this edition

Shostakovich: Lady Macbeth of the Mtensk District
Artists: Maria Ewing/Sergei Larin/Orchestra and Chorus of the Opéra Bastille/Myung-Whun Chung
DG 437 511-2 CD1 Track 10

Shostakovich: 'Katerina Ismailova, Op.114a
Artists:Scottish National Orchestra/Neeme Järvi
Chandos Shostakovich Ballet Suites
CHAN X10088(2) CD2 Track 14

Shostakovich: Symphony No. 5 (4th movt.)
Artists:Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra (Bratislava)/Ladislav Slovák
NAXOS 8.550632 Track 4

Prokofiev - Peter and the Wolf
Artists: Jeremy Nicholas (narrator)/Czecho-Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra/Ondrej Lenárd
Naxos 8.550499 Track 35

Shostakovich: String Quartet No.8 in C minor, Op.110 - Largo
Artists: St. Petersburg String Quartet
Hyperion CDA67154 Track 13

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Friday Programme 20
The Depression

This programme explores the impact the depression had on America music. Despite the Wall Street Crash, jobs lost and record sales falling like the stock exchange, music was booming. The radio was reaching millions, hundreds of swing bands were on the road entertaining at speakeasies and dance halls.

We focus part of this programme on Gershwin's Porgy and Bess ,written in 1935, which told the story of life on Catfish Row and painted a picture of life of poverty and the elusive hope of the new life in big city. We also look at the influence of Aaron Copland will reveal that while America was in the depths of a depression it grew a culture that would remain absolutely it's own and influence the future musical life of the nation.

Music from this edition

'Creole Love Call'
Artists: Duke Ellinton & his cotton club orchestra
NAXOS - Ellington, Album:Duke: Cotton Club Stomp (1927-1931) (Duke Ellington, Vol. 1) Catalogue No: 8.120509. Pub: 2000 HNH
International.

Stravinsky: Ragtime
Artists: European Soloist Ensemble, Dimitri Ashkenazy, Valdimir Ashkenazy
Decca 4481772 Track 1, ragtime.

Stravinsky Ragtime. EMI Classics 0777 754608 2 7CD2 track 7
Album: Composers in Person - Stravinsky

Milhaud Album: La Creation du monde - Track 2,
Artists: Orchestre National de Lille, Jean-Claude Casadesus
Le Boeuf sur le toit
Naxos 8.557287. Pub: 2005 Naxos International.

Album: Mack the Knife, Songs by Kurt Weill
Artists: Bertolt Brecht
Track 1:Weill/Brecht - The Ballad of Mack the Knife
NAXOS 8.120831, Pub: 2007 Naxos Rights International.

Gerswhin Rhapsody in Blue
Artists: Kathryn Selby, Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, Slovak Philharmonic Orch, Richard Hayman
HWIN: Rhapsody in Blue / Piano Concerto
Catalogue No: 8.550295

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Series 2 - Episode Guide - Week 3: 24 to 28 September 2007

Monday Programme 11.
The End of the Hapsburgs

At the start of the twentieth century the glory days of the Austro-Hungarian Empire were over. Nationalism was the unstoppable force of change.

The Czech composer Janacek was a composer driven by the nationalist movement. His Slavic loyalty stretched for beyond the boundaries of Moravia or Bohemia....to Russia, which he saw for the first time in 1896 and said that at last he'd found a Slav state. Support for Russia was another reason for disaffection with Austro-Hungary which went to war with Russia in the meltdown of 1914. The Slavic commitment was at odds with the last, failed thrust of empire.

Music from this edition

Brahms Album: Brahms Hungarian Dances.
Artists: Idil Biret, Piano. Pub:1994 HNH International
Track 21:Hungarian Dances, nos.5
NAXOS 8.550355.

Janacek - Sinfonietta
Artists:Slovak Radio Symphony Orch. Pub: 1990 HNH International
Track 10 Allegretto. Album: Lachisn Dances
Naxos 8.550411.

Bartok - Track 48, 44 Duos for Two Violins, Transilvanian Dance
> Artists: Performer: Gyorgy Pauk, Kazuki Sawa. Pub: 1995 HNH International
Naxos 8.550868. Album: Solo Violin Sonata, Duos.

Bartok - String Quartet No 4 last mvt.Naxos 8.557543-44
Artists: Performer: Vermeer Quartet. Pub: 2005 Naxos Rights
CD 2 Track 8, 5th mvt allegro molto.
Album: Bartok String Quartets

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Tuesday Programme 12
The Path to War

How were composers across Europe affected by the horrors of the First World War. The pre-war years had been good, widening prosperity, political reform and modernisation. Those who had tried to reflect this world were faced with a dramatic and painful change.

In Britain the patriotic tub-thumping at the start of the war, with the feeble promises about an early end to the fighting, soon gave way to horror. By 1916, two years after it began, the whole country knew that its young men were being slaughtered and the world had changed.

Composers across Europe were affected individually. Many were drafted themselves. Arnold Schoenberg was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army reserves in 1915. His pupil Alban Berg was called up too; he was discharged because of asthma. Ralph Vaughan Williams was an ambulance driver as did Ravel in France - a dangerous occupation on the western front. Jim explores how these experiences were reflected in their music.

Music from this edition

Gurney - Album and track:Severn Meadows Track 6
Artists: Paul Agnew, Julius Drake. Pub: Hyperion
Hyperion CDA67243.

Album: English Orchestral Songs
Artists; BBC Scottish Symphony Orch, Christopher Maltman
Hyperion CDA67065
Track 12 Gurney 'In Flanders'

Berg - Wozzeck - opening
Artists: Orchestra & Chorus of the Royal Opera, Stockholm, Carl Johan Falkman
Naxos 8.660076-77
CD 1 Track 1, scene 1. Pub: 2002 HNH International.

Poulenc Album
Artists: Olivier Cazal, piano
Piano music volume 2 - Track 2 Trois Mouvements Perpetuels 1 Track 2
Naxos 8.553930.

Gurney - Severn Meadows
Artists: Paul Agnew, Julius Drake.
Hyperion CDA67243. Track 21, The Fields

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Wednesday Programme 13.
Out of Fashion

After the end of the First World War composers seemed to be divided between those who looked to the past and those who wanted to go forward into the future. This programme focuses on the Richard Strauss and Rachmaninov, who were composers of the late German Romantic era. Their music remained based on past traditions but others, like the innovative Sibelius, looked to the future trying to ensure their music was a reflection of the new Europe.

Music from this edition

R.Strauss - Der Rosenkavalier
Artists: Vienna Philharmonic Orch, Conductor: Erich Kleieer
NAXOS historical 8.111011-13 Track 1 CD 1: Prelude.

R Strauss Naxos 8.111014-15
Artists: Vienna Philharmonic Orch, Conductor, C Krauss.
Album: Salome. Track 19 CD1 Salome dance of the 7 veils.

R.Strauss Four Last Songs
NAXOS historical 8.111145. Album Four Last Songs Track 3: Beim Schlafengehn.

R Strauss Four Last Songs
Artists: perf. Jessye Norman, cond. Kurt Masur and Gewandhaus Orchester Leipzig
Philips 419052-2 Tarck 3 Beim Schlafengehn.

Rachmaninov - Piano Concerto 2
Perf: Stephen Huff with Dallas Symphony Orch conducted by Andrew Litton
Hyperion CDA67501/2 Track: 2nd mvt CD2 Track 2 Adagio Sostenuto.

Sergey RachmaninovPiano concerto no 2 , track 2 'Adagio Sostenuto.
Artists: Bernd Glemser, piano / Polish National Radio Symphony Orch / conductor, Antoni Wit
Album: Rachmaninov Piano Concertos Nos 2 & 3 NAXOS 8.550810

Sibelius - Seventh Symphony
Artists: The Iceland Symphony Orch with Petri Sakari
NAXOS 8.554387. Track 13 Symphony no 7. Album: Sibelius Symphonies no 6 & 7.

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Thursday Programme 14.
Revolution in Russia

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We explore the effect the Russian Revolution had on the development of classical music. Prokofiev saw the revolution as an event that would lead to freedom.

Yet for those composers who were more interested in the crowds and their feelings than in "the inner essence of the revolution, they would find themselves the objects of suspicion of the state and its unwieldy artistic apparatus.

The new regime had huge implications for all music. Operas from the past were performed, but adapted to give them a revolutionary flavour. Puccini's Tosca, which after all had only been written in 1900, was staged as The Battle for the Commune Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots were turned into those Soviet heroes, The Decembrists.

Music from this edition

Scriabin - Piano Concerto
Artists: Konstantin Scherbakov, Russian State TV and Radio Choir, Moscow symphony orch, Igor Golovschin conductor
NAXOS 8.550818 Track 4 Promethus, The Poem of Fire
Pub: 1999 HNH International

Prokofiev: Visons Fugitives no. 19
Artists: Etri Andgaparidze
NAXOS 8.553429. Track 35: No 19 Album: Prokofiev Piano Music No 1.

Roslavets: 4th violin sonata
Artists: Solomia Soroka and Arthur Greene
Naxos 8.557903 Track 4 Allegro Con Spirito, Album: Roslavets Vialin Sonatas 1,4 & 6.

Shostakovich - Gallop from The Bed-bug.
Artists: R. Hayroudinoff
Available on Shostakovich - Theatre Music - Chandos ASIN: B00005B1D6. Track 12 Gallop From the Bed bug. Album: Theatre Music

Mossolov: Iron Foundry
Artists: Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra/ Chailly
DECCA 436640/2 Track 1 Zavod-Iron Foundry Album: Prokofiev/ Varese/ Mosolov

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Friday Programme 15
Jazz

What was the impact that the rise of jazz had on the world of classical music? Jazz could be described as the music that gave the twentieth century its own rhythm and turned improvisation into a principle. It bubbled up from the streets, drew on the singing of spirituals and the early blues, and opened a new chapter in the story of music.

At the start of the 1920s these sounds were entertainment and they were a break with the past. The Great War was over, and for a few years there was wild optimism or at least the feeling of "live today, for tomorrow we die". Never mind that the soul of jazz was rooted in the misery of slaves and the downtrodden, and that it washed the world with melancholy, it was fresh with all the energy of a country that was building.

Many of the composers who were the inheritors of the European tradition were entranced. They couldn't ignore these sounds. We hear how the likes of Igor Stravinsky , Debussy and Satie were influenced by jazz.

Music from this edition

'Creole Love Call'
Artists: Duke Ellinton & his cotton club orchestra
NAXOS - Ellington, Album:Duke: Cotton Club Stomp (1927-1931) (Duke Ellington, Vol. 1) Catalogue No: 8.120509. Pub: 2000 HNH
International.

Stravinsky: Ragtime
Artists: European Soloist Ensemble, Dimitri Ashkenazy, Valdimir Ashkenazy
Decca 4481772 Track 1, ragtime.

Stravinsky Ragtime. EMI Classics 0777 754608 2 7CD2 track 7
Album: Composers in Person - Stravinsky

Milhaud Album: La Creation du monde - Track 2,
Artists: Orchestre National de Lille, Jean-Claude Casadesus
Le Boeuf sur le toit
Naxos 8.557287. Pub: 2005 Naxos International.

Album: Mack the Knife, Songs by Kurt Weill
Artists: Bertolt Brecht
Track 1:Weill/Brecht - The Ballad of Mack the Knife
NAXOS 8.120831, Pub: 2007 Naxos Rights International.

Gerswhin Rhapsody in Blue
Artists: Kathryn Selby, Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra, Slovak Philharmonic Orch, Richard Hayman
HWIN: Rhapsody in Blue / Piano Concerto
Catalogue No: 8.550295

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Series 2 - Episode Guide - Week 2: 17 to 21 September 2007

Monday Programme 6.
Exotic Paris - Debussy goes to the Paris Exhibition

In the 1890's, in France, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into the new century. We discover how his music came to represent one of the most important transitions from the musical ideas that dominated the nineteenth century to the twentieth.

Debussy was producing new effects that were original, daring, yet they were accepted immediately by audiences. Debussy created a new musical language and how it changed things forever.

Music from this edition

Gamelan music - Evergreen Club
Artists: Performer:Evergreen Club Contempory Gamelan.
Album:Sunda song, NAXOS world 76061-2, Track 1 Angeun

Debussy - Pagodes from Estampes.
Artists: Francois-Joel Thiollier, Piano.
Album: Piano works volume 3. Pub: 1997 HNH international
NAXOS 8.553292 track 7 Pagodes

Debussy - Prelude L'apres-midi
Artists: Brt Philharmonic Orch, Alexander Rahbari.
Naxos 8.550262 . Album: Debussy: La Mer, Nocturnes
Pub: 1990 HNH International,

Debussy - Pelias et Melisande
Artists: Orchestre National de lille-region nord/pas de Calais / conductor: Jean Claude Casadesus.
NAXOS 8.6600479. Pub:1997 hnh international Track CD3 track 4 'A Chamber in the Castle'

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Tuesday Programme 7
Fakes and Mystics

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We explore how the fashion for mysticism at the start of the twentieth century played it's part in musical history. James Naughtie introduces us to the music of Scriabin, a Russian composer, who spent his musical life exploring the mystical life and trying to depict this in his work.

Music from this edition

Scriabin - Complete Piano Sonatas
Artists: Marc Andre Hamelin
HYPERION CDA67131/2, 1st movement. Pub: 1996 Hyperion, track: 12, 4th piano sonata 1st mvt

Scriabin - Prometheus - the Poem of Fire
Artists: Konstantin Scherbakov, Russian State TV and Radio Choir, Moscow symphony orch, Igor Golovschin conductor
NAXOS 8.550818. Pub: 1999 HNH International
Track 4: Prometheus, Album: Scriabin Piano concerto

Cyril Scott - The Muses
Artists: Howard Shelley, The Huddersfield Choral Society, BBC Philharmonic, Martyn Brabbins.
Track 1: Symphony No 3 1st mvt, The Muses - CHAN10211, Pub: 2004 chandos records

Satie - Prelude de la porte heroique du ciel
Artists:Klara Koermendi
Album: Piano Works Vol.1, NAXOS 8.550696, Pub: 1993 HNH International ltd

Wagner - Parsifal
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony Orch, Johannes Wildner
NAXOS 8.550498, Album: Tristan Parsifal, Pub: 1991 HNH International Track 3Prelude to act 1of Parsifal

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Wednesday Programme 8.
Pre-war Vienna

In 1889 Johann Strauss the elder died. This marked a turning point for Vienna from the old world to the new. At the dawn of the new century Vienna was, one of the most extraordinary and artistically exciting cities in the world.

Gustav Klimt was using new painting styles to depict sex and the interior life of women, Freud was exploring mental illness. In music, Mahler was writing glorious romantic symphonies while Arnold Schoenberg, was dismantling the old musical forms and discovering a new sound world, which eventually he would make his own.

Music from this edition

J. Strauss junior
Artists: Marco polo edition of complete orchestral works
album 100 most famous waltzes, overtures,polkas 7 Marches vol 1 - Track 8 Kaiserwalzer
Naxos 8.554517. Pub: 1989, 91,93 & 95 HNH International

Mahler Symphony no. 4
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony orch, Antoni Wit.
NAXOS 8.550527. Pub: 1993 HNH International Track 2 2nd mvt, In Gemachlicher Bewegung, ohne Hast

Schoenberg
Artists: Ulster Orch, Takuo Yuasa.
Album:Verklärte Nacht NAXOS 8.554371. Pub: 2000 HNH International Track 4 Verklärte Nacht

Mahler 5th Symphony
Artists: New York Philharmonic/symphony orch, conductor Bruno
Naxos historical 8.110896. Album: Mahler Symphony no 5, Track 3 Adagietto, Valter
Schoenberg - Verklärte Nacht
Artists: Ulster Orch, Takuo Yuasa.
NAXOS 8.554371. Pub: 2000 HNH International, Track 5, Poco adajio, Track 7 Adagio

Schoenberg 2nd string quartet
Artists: The Fred Sherry quartet, soprano: Jennifer Welch-Babidge
Last movement. Naxos 8.557521 Album: 6 Al cappella mixed choruses, Track 10 Entruckung.

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Thursday Programme 9.
Elgar

Edward Elgar's music seems to have become emblematic of this country, but why?. Nimrod from his Enigma Variations has become a solemn anthem for great events; the tune from the first Pomp and Circumstance March is England's second national anthem; and the figure of Elgar himself, the countryman with a white moustache and a dog at his heel, seems the quintessence of English stock and appeared on the £20 note till last month.

Yet there's more in it than that; Elgar's music has an idyllic atmosphere and confidence which is shot through with a shaft of sadness. There's no fevered, jingoistic nationalism here; more an understanding of deeper things to be valued and to be lost.

Music from this edition

Elgar - Album:1st symphony
Artists: BBC Philharmonic and George Hurst.
NAXOS 8.550634. Pub: 1993 HNH International. Track 2 Andante Nobilmente e semplice

Elgar - violin concerto 2nd mvt andante
Artists: Yehudi Menuhin, London Symphony Orch
Track 5 (Menuhin recording)
NAXOS historical 8.110902

Elgar - Album: sea pictures
Artists: Sarah Connolly, Bournemouth Symphony Orch & chorus, Simon Wright.
Track 12 In Haven, NAXOS 8.557710. Pub:2006 Naxos

Elgar -Album: Falstaff
Artists:English Northern Philharmonia, David Lloyd Jones.
NAXOS 8.553879. Pub:1999 HNH International. Track: King Henry 5th Progress Track 6

Elgar - Album: Cello Concerto in E Minor.
Artists: Maria Kliegel, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Capella Istropolitana, Michael Halasz, Adrian Leaper.
1st movement.Adajio-Moderato Track 1, NAXOS 8.554409. Pub: 1989-92 HNH International

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Friday Programme 10
A Riot - Premiere of the Rite of Spring.

The musical rush for the modern world which ties in with Cubism and Abstraction in art. Standing on the brink of War and embodying a new land.- Stravinsky

Musically, you might say that the twentieth century didn't start on time; but on a Thursday night in Paris in May 1913, with the first performance of Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring.

This programme explains the power and the importance of this piece, why it caused such uproar in Paris that evening and why it's become an iconic piece of the age.

Stravinsky's revolution lay in his method of breaking with the idea of music that moved naturally from one development to the next - growing organically phase by phrase, movement by movement. Instead, repeated notes and musical ideas would be superimposed, so that the hypnotic texture was startling and deep. It made the audience work.

Music from this edition

Stravinsky - Rite of Spring
Artists: Performer: London Symphony Orch, Robert Craft.
NAXOS 8.557501. Album: The Rite of Spring. The Nightingale. Publisher: 1996, 1998 & 2005 Naxos, Track: 1, Introduction, Track 9,
The Glorification of the chosen one, Track: 12, The Sacrificial dance

Stravinsky - Firebird.
Artists: Performer: Philharmonic orch, Robert Craft
Naxos: 8.557500, Album: The Firbird. Petrushka, Pub: 1997, 1998 & 2005 Naxos

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Series 2 - Episode Guide - Week 1: 10 to 14 September 2007

Monday Programme 1.
The shock of the Future

Modern music (by Liszt and Wagner) was seen as a threat to classical music and moral traditions

As Victorian optimism took hold in Britain, the nationalist movement swept across Europe as transport and technology opened up new horizons. Composers were divided between those, like Brahms, who looked back to the past for their inspiration and Wagner and Liszt who wanted their music to embrace the future.

Liszt who later became Wagner's father in law said he wanted to "hurl a musical lance into the boundless realm of the future".

Music from this edition

Brahms - 1st Symphony
Artists: Marin Alsop & London Philharmonic Orch
Naxos 8.557428 Track 1, Un Poco Sostenuto Allegro
Naxos rights international 2005

Wagner - Tristan and Isolde
Artists: Millgramm/Forsen/Fassbender/Lundberg/kyhlr/dike, Royal Swedish opera male chorus & orch / leif segerstam NAXOS 8.660152-54 Track 1 CD1 Prelude

Franz Liszt - final section of Symphonic Poem Tasso
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony Orch / Michael HalaszPub: hnh international ltd
NAXOS 8.550487, Track 1 Tasso

Schumann Fantasie in C
Artists: Marc Andre Hamelin piano
Hyperion CDA67166. Pub: Hyperion
Track 1 Fantasie in C

Brahms 4th Symphony last movement
Artists: BRT Philharmonic Orch, Brussels, Alexander Rahbari conductor
Naxos 8.550281 WW, Track 4 Allegro Energico

Brahms 4th Symphony last movement
Artists: Berliner Philharmoniker & Herbert von Karajan
Deutsche Grammophon 431 593-2
Pub: 1978 polydor internarional
Track 4Allegro energico e passionato

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Tuesday Programme 2.
Mother Russia - The Birth of Russian Music

The development of classical music in Russia in the nineteenth century. Having had a rich history of folk music, Glinka wanted Russian music to reflect the distinctiveness of his own country. Seen as the father of Russian music he inspired the likes of Musorgsky, Borodin and Rimsky-Korsakov to look for a Russian identity in music to find the country's own voice.

Music From This edition

Glinka - Album: Russian Festival NAXOS 8.550085
Artists: CSR Symphony Orch, Anthony BramallPub: Pacific Music
Track 4: Overture to Russlan and Lydmilla

Mussorgsky - Pictures at an exhibition
Artists: National symphony orch of Ukraine / Theodore Kuchar
naxos 8.555924, Track 4: Night on a Bare Mountain

Tchaikovsky 2nd Symphony
Artists: Polish National Radio Sym Orch / Adrian Leaper
NAXOS 8.550488, Track 4: Finale: Moderato assia-presto

Tchaikovsky - The Sleeping Beauty
Artists: Rose Adegio Czecho Slovak state philharmonic orch / Andrew Mogrelia.
NAXOS 8.550490-92, Track 17 'The Rose Adagio'

Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition

Artists: Per: Balakirev Islamey/Jeno Jando - Piano.
Naxos 8.550044, Track 1: The Great Gate of Kiev

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Wednesday Programme 3.
Viva Verdi - Verdi and the Unification of Italy

At a time when Italy wasn't so much a country, as just an idea - being occupied by Austria in the north and other competing states elsewhere - we look at the life and work of Giuseppe Verdi.

Born in the age of Napoleon, dying the in the twentieth century, he was a composer who's work was inseparable from politics. His chorus of the Hebrew slaves from one of his earliest works, Nabucco, is a hymn to freedom and become an anthem that Italian nationalists took to their hearts and out into the streets.

What role did he play in the political development Italy and why does he remain one of the most loved composers of opera?

Music From This edition

Verdi - Nabucco - "Va pensiero"
Artists: CSR Symphony Orch/BRT Philharmonic Orch.
NAXOS 8.556669 pub:1993 hnh international, The very best of Verdi, Track 4 Nabucco

Verdi - La Traviata
Artists: CSR Symphony Orch/BRT Philharmonic Orch.
NAXOS 8.556669. pub:1993 hnh international, The very best of Verdi,
Verdi,Track 14 Un Ballo in Maschera, Track 6: Sempre Libera

Verdi - Requiem
Artists: Conductor: Victor de Sabata, Elizabeth Schwarzkopf - soprano / Oralia Dominguez - mezzo soprano / Giuseppe di Stefano - tenor / Cesare Siepi - bass
NAXOS 8.111049-50, Chorus & Orch of La Scala, Milan
Album: Messa da RequiemPub: 2006 Naxos. Track 3: Dies Irae

Verdi, O Terra addio Aida
Artists: Maria Dragoni/Kristjan Johannsson/National Symphony orch of Ireland/Con: Rico Saccani
Album: Verdi Aida. Naxos: 8.660033-4 CD2 Track 33
Pub: 1995 HNH International

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Thursday Programme 4.
My Country - The Spread of Nationalism in Music.

We look at how, at the start of the second half of the nineteenth century, much of European music reflected the political desire of many countries to create their own nation states and to regain their national heritage. Composers like Bedrich Smetana with his cycle Ma Vlast - My Country used it as a way of expressing his own patriotism. He wanted to separate himself from the German culture of the Hapsburg Empire, in which he'd been he'd been brought up and celebrate his Bohemia roots, where as a young man his native Czech language had been suppressed. Later Sibelius did the same thing with Finlandia - which was initially banned by the authorities as Finland was then still a Russian duchy

Music From This edition

Smetana - Track 2 Vltava - from 2nd movement of Ma Vlast
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony Orch / conductor: Antoni Wit
NAXOS 8.550931. Pub: 1994 HNH International.
Album: Smetana: Ma Vlast

Smetana's Bartered Bride Overture Track 2,
Artists: Slovak Philharmonic/CSSR State Philharmonic

Naxos: 8.550376 Slovak PO / Wordsworth. P: 1985-89 HNH International. Track 2. , Album: Slavonic Festival

Dvorak - Dumky Piano Trio
Artists: The Florestan Trio
Hyperion CDA66895. Album: Dvorak Piano Trios op 65 - op 90: Pub: Hyperion. , Track 1: 1st movement:Allegro ma non troppo

Album & track:Sibelius - Finlandia ,
Artists: Dao Kolbeinsson, Cor Anglais, Richard Tchaikovshy, Iceland Symphony Orch, Petri Sakari.
Naxos 8.554265, track 1
Smetana - Ma Vlast
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony Orch / conductor: Antoni Wit
NAXOS 8.550931. Pub: 1994 HNH International,
Track 2 from 2nd mvt Vitava - from first movement of Ma Vlast
Album: Smetana: Ma Vlast

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Friday Programme 5
Wagner - the Franco Prussian War and the Unification of Germany.

Probably no composer's name evokes the same potent mix of adoration and distaste as Wagner. This programme looks at the enormous impact his work had on the subsequent development of western classical music and why his theatre at Bayreuth came to be the magnet for every philosopher, artist and musician of note. For many Hitler's passion for Wagner's work has poisoned it for ever, so why would the conductor Daniel Barenboim insist that it be played in a concert he conducted in Israel, breaking a custom that had the near force of law?

Music From This edition

Wagner - Das Rheingold
Artists: Stattsoper Stuttgart, Staatsorchester Stuttgart, Lothar Zagrosek.
NAXOS CD WAGNER, R.: Rheingold (Das) Catalogue number 8.660170-71.

Wagner - Meistersinger Overture
Artists: Polish National Radio Symphony Orch, Johannes Wildner.
NAXOS 8.550498

Wagner - Götterdämmerung.
Artists: Staatsoper Stuttgart, staatsopernchor Stuttgart, Staatsorchester Stuutgart, Lothar Zagrosek.
NAXOS CD WAGNER, R.: Gotterdammerung (Ring Cycle 4) - Catalogue No: 8.660179-82
Siegfried Funeral Music. Pub: 2007 Naxos. Track CD4 T9: Funeral March

Wagner - Tristan and Isolde
Artists: Royal Swedish Opera Male chorus and orchestra, Leif Segerstam
NAXOS 8.660152-54. Track 10 cd 3. Liebestod.

Wagner - Götterdämmerung.
Artists: Staatsoper Stuttgart, staatsopernchor Stuttgart, Staatsorchester Stuutgart, Lothar Zagrosek
NAXOS CD WAGNER, R.: Gotterdammerung (Ring Cycle 4) - Catalogue No: 8.660179-82
Siegfried Funeral Music. Pub: 2007 Naxos, Track 15 cd4 : Schluss

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