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Thursday 08 August 2002, 9.02 am - 9.30 am.
Melvyn Bragg follows his long historical exploration of the Routes of English with Voices of the Powerless, in which he explores the lives of the ordinary working men and women of Britain at six critical moments across the last 1,000 years.

The Reformation - Key events of the Sixteenth century

Reign of Henry VIII - 1509 - 1547
1533 - Act of Restraint of Appeals - severed the church from Rome.
1534 - Act of Supremacy - monarch recognised as ' Supreme Head of the Church of England' - this act was repealed by Mary in 1554 but revived by Elizabeth ( under the title 'Supreme Governor' in 1559.
1534 - Act of Succession - oath from every adult recognising that the king's first marriage had been invalid - execution of some bishops, monks and nuns.
1535 - Valor Ecclesiasticus - Royal commission surveying Church property and wealth in England and Wales.
1536 and 1538 - Royal injunctions designed to give practical effect to changes in doctrinal emphasis. In 1536 these pronounced against superstitious beliefs on pilgrimages, relics and images, required the clergy to expound the 1536 Ten Articles and to teach the Lord's prayer, creed and commandments in English. In 1538 injunctions ordered the removal of images, keeping of baptisms, marriages and burials and the placing in churches of a large Bible in English.
1536 - 40 - Dissolution of the Monasteries.
1537 - Cromwell licensed Coverdale's translation of the Bible.
1538 - Every parish church ordered to have a Bible.
1539 - Official 'Great Bible', mainly Coverdale's work, appears.
1539 - Act of Six Articles ( repealed in 1547 ) enforces Catholic doctrine on six issues, transubstantiation, communion in one kind, clerical celibacy, vows of chastity, private masses and auricular confession.
1545 and 1547 - Chantries Acts empowered confiscation and dissolution of Chantries, although little was done during Henry's reign.
1536 - Pilgrimage of Grace - Northern uprising leads to eventual execution of over 200 rebels.

Edward VI - 1547 - 1553
( source Diarmaid MacCulloch's chapter on 'The Change of Religion' from Patrick Collinson's Sixteenth century volume of 'The Short Oxford History of the British Isles' and 'The Voices of Morebath - Reformation and Rebellion in an English Village' Eamon Duffy )
1547 - Chantries dissolved.
1549 - Introduction of Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer.
1549 - Kett's Rebellion and the Prayer-Book Rebellion.
1552 - Second Book of Common Prayer - which wiped out the last traces of the Catholic mass and explicitly denied the real presence - the transubstantiation of the bread and the wine into the body and blood of Christ.

Queen Mary 1553 - 1558
( source Diarmaid MacCulloch's chapter on 'The Change of Religion' from Patrick Collinson's Sixteenth century volume of 'The Short Oxford History of the British Isles')
1554 - Wyatt's Rebellion - 3000 Kentish men, at least partly motivated by fear that Mary would marry a Spanish King.
1553 - Parliament repealed all Edwardian religious legislation ( restoring the Henrician position of Catholicism under a royal supremacy ) with the exception of the Chantries Act.
1554 - Pope's authority recognised but only after papal dispensation allowing retention of ex-Church lands. Return of Cardinal Pole as papal legate, Pole made Archbishop of Canterbury.
Jan 1555 onwards revival of the heresy laws led to a series of public burnings, mainly of lay commoners but also members of the nobility and senior clergy - approx 300 burned at the stake.

Queen Elizabeth 1558 - 1603 1559 - Religious settlement reinstates the major reforms of Edward's reign. The Uniformity Act restored the second Edwardian Prayer Book but compromised on the doctrine of the real presence - combining both a memorialist approach ( do this in rememberance of me ) with an acceptance of the real presence - a doctrinal fudge.
1563 - Thirty Nine Articles - a revision of Cranmer's 42 Articles of 1553 - the articles imposed Protestant doctrine but avoided a direct attack on certain Catholic beliefs. Most significantly, compromising on the question of the real presence
1569 - Northern rebellion and attempt to replace the Protestant Elizabeth with her Catholic cousin, Mary Queen of Scots. Led by the nobility, the rebellion was crushed and around 400 rebels were executed in the fierce repression of the aftermath
1570 - Elizabethe ex-communicated by the Pope in the aftermath of the Northern Rebellion.

Listen Live
Audio Help
l - Castles and Cruelty - extracts on programme page.
2 - The Peasants' Revolt - extracts on programme page.
-3 - The Reformation - extracts on programme page
4 - The Plantation of Ulster - extracts on programme page
5 - The English Civil War and the Siege of Chester - - extracts on programme page
Listen to Melvyn Bragg talk about Voices of the Powerless
Listen to Simon Elmes, executive producer, give an unigue insight into the programme.
Listen to the signature music
Go to - Homepage.
Go to Prog l - Castles and Cruelty
Go to Prog 1 - Biography of Orderic Vitalis
Go to Prog 2 - The Peasants' Revolt
Go to Prog 3 - The Reformation
Go to Prog 3 - The Reformation - Key Events
Go to Prog 4 - The Plantation of Ireland in the Counties of Armagh and Tyrone.
Go to Prog 5 - The English Civil War and the Siege of Chester
Read The Sources
Go to Prog 1 - Castles and Cruelty
Go to Prog 2 - The Peasants' Revolt
Go to Prog 3 - the Reformation
Go to Prog 4 - the Plantation of Ulster
Go to Prog 5 - The English Civil War and the Siege of Chester

In Our Time
Thursday 9.00-9.45am, rpt 9.30-10.00pm. Melvyn Bragg explores the history of ideas. Listen again online or download the latest programme as an mp3 file.
This Sceptred Isle
Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg presents In Our Time for BBC Radio 4, a series where he and his guests discuss the "Big Ideas" of cultural or scientific significance.

He also presented The Routes of English, his millennial series celebrating 1,000 years of the English language.

Melvyn Bragg was born in 1939 in Wigton, Cumbria - where many of his books are set. He won a scholarship to Oxford to read history, and in 1961 he gained a coveted traineeship with the BBC.

He has presented a number of television series including: Read All about It, Two Thousand Years, and Who's Afraid of the Ten Commandments? and createdThe South Bank Show.

Melvyn presented Start the Week between 1988 and 1998. In his 1998 series On Giant's Shoulders he interviewed scientists about their eminent predecessors.

As well as presenting for Radio 4, he is Controller of Arts for London Weekend Television. In 1998 he was made a life peer. He's written 17 novels, the latest of which, The Soldier's Return, won the WH Smith Literary Award.

Melvyn Bragg was made a Life Peer in 1998 and he took the title of Baron Bragg of Wigton in the County of Cumbria.

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