Highwaymen, the Rise of Marlborough and War with Spain
In the latter part of William's reign the Whigs and the Tories became very powerful. William knew that Anne would succeed and looked to Marlborough, who set out to unite the Tory party.
Then the crisis in the Spanish monarchy occurred. France invaded the Spanish Netherlands, now Belgium. James II died and Louis XIV announced he recognized James Edward Stuart as James III of England and VIII of Scotland - the Old Pretender. England prepared for war.
William III did not see battle again, he died in 1702. His reign had been dedicated to war with France.
SARAH CHURCHILL, DUCHESS OF MARLBOROUGH (1660-1744)
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough
- Childhood friend of Queen Anne
- Wife of John Churchill who became the First Duke of Marlborough
- When Anne became queen, she dominated her household and became a very powerful political figure
- In 1711, Queen Anne fell out with the Marlboroughs
- They had two daughters, Henrietta who married Sidney Godolphin and Anne who married a son of the Earl of Sunderland
- After Marlborough's death, lived the last years of her life completing the building of Blenheim Palace
William of Orange died after a fall when his horse stumbled on a mole-hill at Hampton Court. The Jacobites toasted "the little gentleman in black velvet!"
THE ACT OF SETTLEMENT 1701
The Act provided for the succession of a Protestant to the throne. In the event of William III and then Queen Anne dying childless the crown would then pass to Sophia, Electress of Hanover and her heirs.
The Act ensured the Hanoverian succession by passing over the superior hereditary rights of the Stuarts.
- the sovereign to be an Anglican;
- the sovereign to seek consent of Parliament before engaging in wars for the defence of possessions abroad not belonging to the Crown of England;
- that only natives of Britain were eligible to hold office or receive grants of crown lands;
- that judges were removable only by address by both Houses of Parliament;
- that royal pardons were powerless to bar impeachments.
/home/system/data/timb/kwikquiz.dat does not exist
/home/system/data/timb/kwikquiz.html does not exist
|1677||Princess Mary marries William of Orange|
|1685||Charles II dies|
James II becomes king of England
Monmouth Rebellion put down
|1687||James II dissolves Parliament|
|1688 ||Seven bishops imprisoned|
Birth of James's son
William of Orange lands in England
James flees abroad
|1689||William III and Mary II become king and queen of England|
|1690 ||Irish Jacobites defeated at Boyne|
|1691||Treaty of Limerick|
|1694 ||Death of Mary II|
|1701||Death of James II|
Louis XIV of France recognizes the Old Pretender as king
|1702||Anne becomes queen |
|1704 ||Battle of Blenheim|