Charles II and the Return of the Monarchy
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
Charles II signed the Declaration of Breda in 1660. He boarded ship with his brothers, the Dukes of York and Gloucester, his aunt Elizabeth, who was Queen of Bohemia, his sister Mary who was the Princess Royal and her son, William who was the Prince of Orange and who one day would be King of England himself. Charles II returned to England as King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith.
The elections for a new Parliament were held. Presbyterians and Royalists won a great majority against Anabaptists and Republicans. The latter tried to recall Richard Cromwell and rise against the Royalists again but in vain, their men deserted them.
CHARLES II (1630-1685)
- King of England 1660-1685
- King of Scotland and Ireland 1649-1685
- The son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria
- Fought his first battle aged 12 at Edgehill
- Fled to the Continent in 1646
- Proclaimed King in Edinburgh and Dublin on his father's execution in 1649
- Invaded England from Scotland in 1651 but was seriously injured at Worcester, and hid in an oak tree while escaping.
- In 1659 he opened secret negotiations with Monck and in the declaration of Breda (1660). Charles promised general amnesty, religious liberty and other conciliatory measures
- Returned to England in May 1660 and was proclaimed King.
- Married Catherine of Braganza, a Portuguese Princess, in 1662
- Had Catholic tendencies and promised to convert to Catholicism in the Treaty of Dover in 1670
- Strove to find a stable basis of Government
- Having no legitimate children, he expected to be succeeded by his brother James, Duke of York, a declared Catholic
- Pronounced himself a Catholic on his deathbed
Charles pronounced himself a Catholic on his deathbed.
ACCOUNT OF THE EARL OF BEDFORD'S VISIT TO CAMBRIDGE
A six-day jaunt rendered at Royson:
- October 12
- The bill at Royston for meat and drink, and to the servants of the house of the poor £1.8s.6d.
- October 13
- Coachman and groom's bill £1.12s.6d.
- October 15
- To the ringers 10s.
To the harpers 5s.
- October 16
- Music morning and dinner at Trinity College Mr Herring's servants.
To the town clerk.
To the sergeants.
Crier, bellman, beadle, housekeeper.
And to the poor box and prisoners'box.
The ostler's bill.
To the poor at inn when your lordship took coach.
The bill at inn for two dinners and supper.
For oil of bitter almonds by Mr Collas.
To the servants.
Shoeing a horse by the way and at Mr Brown's.
To porters that fetched the wine.
The bill for wine and glasses broke.
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|1645||New Model Army is established|
Laud is executed
Use of the prayer book is forbidden
|1646||Charles I surrenders to the Scots|
Receives propositions of Newcastle
|1647||Scots hand Charles I over to the English|
|1649||Charles I is tried and executed|
The monarchy and the House of Lords are abolished
The Commonwealth is declared.
|1658||Oliver Cromwell dies|
|1660||Charles II signs the Declaration of Breda|
Charles II is restored to the throne
|1662||Charles II marries Catherine of Braganza|
|1665||The Great Plague|
|1666||The Fire of London|
|1672||Charles II issues the Declaration of Indulgence|
|1677||Princess Mary marries William of Orange|
|1685||Charles II dies|
James II becomes king of England