The Wars of the Roses
Henry VI was finally crowned in 1429, though he was not declared of age until 1437. In 1450 the Kentish Rebellion reflected a breakdown in law and order.
Then in 1453 the King had a breakdown. His queen, Margaret of Anjou, aspired to be Protector - in October she gave birth to a son, Edward, but there was uncertainty whether Henry was his father. In 1454 the Duke of York was declared Protector in her stead. The Beauforts (Lancastrians) rose against the Government. The King then recovered slightly. Margaret was ready to do battle, so was the Duke of York.
The Wars of the Roses had begun.
Edward of York, the Earl of March, joined forces with the Earl of Warwick. At Towton Field in Yorkshire Edward won a battle which won him the throne. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower. Edward IV was crowned king in 1465. He beheaded Henry VI in 1471. He died suddenly in 1483.
HENRY VI (1421-1471)
- King of England 1422-1461 and 1470-1471
- Became King of England at the age of nine months
- England was governed effectively until he was declared of age in 1437
- After his breakdown in 1453, he played an even more passive role
- Lost his crown to Edward IV in 1461 and retreated to Scotland with Margaret but was captured in 1465 and sent to the Tower of London
- Restored to the throne for a few brief months from October 1470
- Murdered by Edward IV in April 1471
On the death of his maternal grandfather, Henry VI was proclaimed King of France but Charles VII, the Dauphin, reclaimed the throne just two weeks later.
It was Sir Walter Scott in his novel, Anne of Geierstein (1829), who first called the Lancaster Vs York conflict The War of the Roses.
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|1422||Henry VI becomes King|
Humphrey of Gloucester and John of Lancaster - protectors
|1429||Joan of Arc is victorious at Orleons|
Charles VII of France crowned at Rouen
|1431||Joan of Arc burned at Rouen|
|1437||James II, King of Scots|
|1445||Henry VI marries Margaret of Anjou|
|1453||The Hundred Years' War ends at Castillon|
|1454||Henry VI temporarily insane - Richard of York protector|
|1455||Wars of the Roses begin|
St Albans - Yorkists defeat Lancastrians. Beaufort dies.
|1460||Warwick captures Henry VI at Northampton|
|1460||James III, King of Scots|
|1461||Edward, Duke of York, defeats Lancastrians|
Declares himself Edward IV
Margaret of Anjour rescues Henry VI
Edward IV wins at Towton and is crowned King
Magaret and Henry flee to Scotland
|1465||Henry VI is recaptured and imprisoned in the Tower|
|1469||Earl of Warwick and Duke of Clarence plot against Edward|
Henry VI is restored to the throne and Edward flees to
|1471||Edward IV lands in England, defeats Warwick at Barnet|
Imprisons Henry VI who is later murdered
|1483||Edward IV dies|
Edward V, King of England
- e.g. Duchy of Cornwall
|||Strongholds of Supporting Families:|
- East Anglia
- through the Percy's
- through the elder Nevilles